For most gardeners, onions are one of the main vegetable crops. And this is no accident, since a good housewife uses onions in almost every savory dish that she cooks. And when it comes time for blanks for the winter, not a single twist will do without it. Well, even children know about the beneficial and healing properties of onions. In addition, in the garden, due to its phytoncidal properties, he often acts as a repeller of various harmful insects. But if the experience of gardening is still small, then many find it difficult at times to accurately determine the timing of harvesting onions. But the extent and duration of the onion was removed from the garden, depends on the degree and duration of storage in the winter.
What determines the timing of harvesting onions
Even from their grandparents, many have heard that the onions need to be removed when they begin to turn yellow, dry and fall leaves. But after all, only experience allows us to distinguish between yellow and dried leaves due to disease from onion feathers, drying out naturally. In addition, it happens that August is already in the yard - and the onion continues to turn green as if nothing had happened. What to do in this case? It is necessary to figure out for yourself when you still need to remove the onions in the Moscow region and what these periods depend on.
After all, if it is removed ahead of time, then it may not have time to form the covering scales, and its neck will remain thick and open. Through it, pathogens of various diseases can easily penetrate even when the bulbs are in the garden. Therefore, during storage, these bulbs quickly deteriorate.
If the onions are overexposed on a bed, then it may crack and fall off dry scales and the roots will begin to germinate again, which will also adversely affect the further storage of the bulbs.
It is at the time of yellowing and lodging of green onion feathers that usually accumulate the maximum amount of nutrients in the bulbs. In this case, the false stem usually softens, loses its elasticity, and the formed bulb acquires a characteristic color for the planted variety.
Accordingly, the timing of harvesting onions directly depend on the type of plant that you planted.Attention! On average, for different varieties of onions from the time of planting to the time of harvesting it takes from 70 to 80 days.
Therefore, if you planted onions in the traditional for the Moscow region terms - mid - end of May, then the time of harvesting the bulbs should fall at the end of July - mid-August.
In general, novice gardeners can be recommended to record the date of planting onion sets in the ground and after 70 days to check whether he is ready for harvesting or not.Tip! You can check it in the old folk way - dig a few bulbs and cut their leaves to the base of the neck.
Wait two or three days. If during this time the stem starts to move out of the neck again, it means that the onion has not yet matured.
Give him another week or two to sit in the ground. If you have not noticed any changes, you can safely dig it up.
But at the same time, it should be borne in mind that the maturation of the bulbs is greatly influenced by weather conditions: temperature and rainfall. If the summer was quite warm and dry, or even hot, then the bulbs are able to ripen much faster than the prescribed dates. If during the first summer months there was a lot of rain, and the temperature could be called rather cool than hot, then by August the onion may still be completely unprepared for harvesting. If the terms you have defined are already suitable, and its leaves still continue to turn green, the neck continues to be juicy and thick, and on the bulbs of inconspicuously colored scales, you can try to accelerate the process of maturation in various folk ways.
This is especially true if the weather forecast portends rainy weather soon. After all, it is not enough that the onions should be harvested in sunny and dry weather. After cleaning, he still needs careful and long-lasting drying.
So, what can be done to accelerate the ripening of the bulbs:
- First of all, completely remove the irrigation of bulbous beds 2-4 weeks before the expected harvest time.
- After the onion feathers have practically stopped growing, it is advisable to remove the ground and almost completely release the bulb. This technique is especially relevant for the northern regions and heavy clay soils, where solar heat does not reach the bulbs hidden under the ground.
- You can also gently lift the bulbs with a fork, slightly tearing the roots and thereby reduce the flow of nutrients into the bulb. Some gardeners a week before harvesting completely mow down the leaves - but this is not the best reception, as it leads to significant losses in yield.
- But sticking green onion feathers prevents the formation of floral arrows, and thus saves a significant part of the crop.
It should be understood that the time of ripening of the bulbs also depends on their method of cultivation. If you grow a turnip from seeds, the ripening time will increase significantly. There are also two options here. When podzimnii sowing seeds (chernushki) onions are usually removed in the second half of August. If you planted seeds in early spring, the bulbs will ripen no earlier than the beginning of September. After harvesting and drying, onions must be sorted into the following types:
- Onions (with a diameter of at least 4-5 cm)
- Onion sets (diameter from 1 to 4 cm)
- Onion sets, planted before winter (less than 1 cm)
Features of harvesting onions
It is most favorable to remove the onions in dry and windy weather. If the beds light sandy soil, the bulbs are very easily pulled out of the ground for dried leaves. On heavier soils along rows, it is necessary to lift the ground at some distance from the bulbs with a fork or shovel to avoid damaging them. In addition, when digging, it is better to pick the bulbs with your hands, because if you carelessly pull the bulb out, it may lose its bottom and easily rot during subsequent storage.
Important! You can not shake the ground with the bulbs, tapping them on the ground, because even small mechanical damage adversely affect their storage.
If necessary, the ground with the bulbs carefully removed with his hands. Dry the onions immediately after harvesting. If the weather is dry, warm and sunny, then the harvest is laid out on the ground in rows so that the bulbs look in one direction and the leaves in the other. Plants need to be turned every day so that the sun can warm up and sanitize all bulbs. This drying should last at least two weeks. Under adverse weather conditions (rain, cloudy weather), the crop is best laid out for drying under a canopy or in any ventilated room under the roof.
Even during the harvest of onions, it is necessary to sort it out, choosing damaged bulbs, as well as those who have a thick neck left. They will need to be used in the first place, since they are not subject to long-term storage.
Drying the onions ends when all the bulbs have a thin and dry neck, and you can freely stick your hand in a pile of onions. If the hand is stuck, it means that the onion is not completely dried.
Unfortunately, the weather is not always favorable, and sometimes the bow has to be cleaned in the rain and in the absence of the sun. In this case, the bulbs should be immediately washed, cleaned of greens and husks, cut off the roots and spread out in one layer in a warm, dry, ventilated room. After 18-20 days a new layer of outer husk will appear on the bulbs. It can be laid out in cardboard boxes and stored in a dry, non-freezing room.
If the onions were grown on soils that are too wet or rich in manure, then ordinary drying may not be enough. To protect such onions from neck rot during storage, it must be dried further at high temperature. At a temperature of + 42 ° + 43 ° С, eight hours of drying is enough; at a temperature of + 32 ° + 33 ° С, it should be dried for about 5 days.
Keep the turnip braided in braids - in this case, the dry leaves are not cut. And you can cut the leaves in 4 cm from the neck and put them in cardboard boxes or nylon stockings and hang them. In this form, onions can be stored up to 18 months.
Determine the timing of harvesting onions is easy - you only need to observe the weather conditions and the condition of the plants themselves.