Garlic is a cultivated plant of the onion family. It began to grow long ago, and garlic appeared in the middle part of Asia. This culture is eaten in almost all countries, and not only the heads, but also the stems, leaves, and flowers are eaten. In Russia, it is customary to season dishes only with chives. This culture is completely unpretentious, but to get a good harvest, you need to know how to plant and how to care for the plant.
From this article you can learn how to plant garlic in the fall, when it is better to do it and what kind of fertilizer for garlic to make in the fall in the ground.
When to plant garlic
This crop can be grown as a spring method, and winter. Usually, in the spring, planting is done, but before the winter, crops are more often grown in teeth.
Bulb - plant seeds ripening in arrows and flowers. If garlic bulbs are planted in the spring, then a gardener will be able to collect single-toothed young heads in the fall. Such heads are not yet full-fledged, they will have to be planted again, this harvest will turn out only in the next season.
Important! It is recommended to renew any sort of garlic when planting, that is, every 3-5 years to plant the seed culture. This will keep the yield at a high level, contributes to an increase in the size of the heads.
Basically, garlic is planted in the winter, thereby ensuring stable and high yields. This culture is frost-resistant, able to tolerate even the most severe frosts, but planting garlic in the fall should be carried out correctly.
To properly plant garlic in the fall, you must, first of all, determine the date of planting. Plant a winter plant should be 2-3 weeks before the onset of these frosts. In the middle zone of the country, this period falls on the end of September, with favorable weather conditions, you can postpone landing until mid-October.
Attention! There are cases when the gardener "missed" the appropriate planting date. It is allowed to plant teeth in early November, but in this case it will be necessary to deepen the planting material into the ground to protect it from freezing.
Before the first frosts, garlic should acquire about ten centimeters of rootlets, but there should be no greens on it at all. If the teeth are planted too early, they will germinate - such plantings will inevitably freeze.
Too late planting of winter garlic can also lead to its freezing, because in this case the cloves will not have time to take root, the plant will be weakened.
Planting of garlic seeds (bulbs), usually made in April. In the spring, planting begins only after strong frosts have passed, and the earth will thaw.
Where to plant winter garlic in the fall
Garlic is an unpretentious crop, it does not have to be watered often and repeatedly fertilized during the growing season, bulbous plants rarely get sick, they are not damaged by insects and other pests. And yet, in order to harvest a good crop, it is necessary to grow plants properly.
The site for the autumn planting is chosen taking into account such facts about the culture:
- Culture should be planted on rested soil. After harvesting the previous crop, it should take at least 1.5-2 months, so choose a place that will remain free at the end of July.
- Winter garlic, like spring, loves loose, light soils with neutral acidity. If the land on the plot is too dense, during frost, it will push out the teeth, and the landings will freeze out. In too light soils, the seeds may deepen too deep - the teeth will fall into the ground under the pressure of snow, after the water has melted, and so on.
- When planting, choose a place well lit by the sun, located on a hill or on a flat area. Lowland areas are often podtaplivayutsya in the spring, there are more likely the freezing of onion plants, infection with fungal infections. If you pick up a fully lit area for planting garlic did not work, stop at penumbra. In this case, it is better to increase the distance between the landings.
- It is important to consider, after which you can plant garlic. To grow a decent crop, crop rotation should be observed - this rule applies to garlic. It is recommended to plant a winter variety to the places where cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, squash, pumpkins, berry bushes grew in the previous season. He does not like the garlic in the neighborhood of root vegetables, because they, like the onion culture itself, need potassium. Soils after potatoes, carrots or beets, for example, are too depleted, they are unsuitable for planting onion crops. Also, do not grow crops after onions or the same garlic (in the same area you can plant a culture after 3-5 years).
- It is impossible to grow garlic in manure soil, because of this, the culture is crushed, the heads will be loose and unsuitable for storage. Onion crops feel best in the soil that has been fertilized with manure for previous plants. At the same time, garlic needs some fertilizers, therefore during planting of cloves in the fall, the soil is additionally fed.
Tip! If the gardener does not have the opportunity to frequently change the place of planting garlic, you must use the green manure. For example, immediately after harvesting the previous crop in July, sow in the vetch site (siderat of the legume family), in September, dig the ground along with the grass and plant teeth there.
How to plant garlic in the fall
Garlic planted under the winter pleases resistance to disease, hardening and high yield.
It is important to comply with the technology of planting onion culture:
- the land needs to be prepared. Immediately after harvesting the previous culture, the soil should be dug, and, if necessary, fertilized. Fertilizer should be applied no later than 1.5-2 weeks before the intended planting of the cloves. If the soil is depleted, you can use compost, humus or wood ash. These dressings are applied to the soil, after which they dig up the earth on a spade bayonet. Culture requires components such as potassium and phosphorus, so it is worth diversifying fertilizers with superphosphate and potassium salt. A solution of copper sulphate will help to disinfect the soil (a teaspoon of this substance is diluted in a bucket of water).
- Preparation of the landed material. Heads of garlic harvested this season must be sifted, inspected, and sick, damaged or infected specimens found. Plant should be the largest and absolutely healthy teeth! Be sure to remove the maternal base before planting, otherwise it will prevent the growth of the roots. Teeth must be intact, the skin can not be removed from them. Before planting garlic in the autumn before winter should be disinfected material. You can do this in several ways: for a few minutes, soak in a strong salt solution (3 tablespoons of common salt dissolved in five liters of water), immerse the seeds in a solution of copper sulfate (a teaspoon for a bucket of water) for a minute, soak in a strong solution of potassium permanganate (about twelve hours ). A more affordable alternative to these agents is an alkaline solution of wood ash. It is prepared this way: 0.4 kg of ash is dissolved in two liters of water, stirred and set on fire, the mixture should boil for 30 minutes. The teeth are soaked in the solution only when it is completely cooled.
Garlic planting scheme
It is difficult for novice gardeners to decide on how deep to plant garlic, how much space to leave between the rows and between the cloves themselves. Answers can be found below:
- large teeth are planted in furrows, the depth of which is about 20 cm. The distance between the teeth is 12-15 cm.
- Small teeth deepen by 10-15 cm, at least 8 cm should remain between adjacent teeth.
- Garlic is sprinkled on top of it with dry soil; its layer should be about 2-3 cm.
- Between the rows should remain at least 25-30 cm. It is more convenient to work with garlic, which is planted at intervals of one meter.
- To prevent rotting zubkov in the ground, it is recommended to pour into the furrows coarse river sand, a layer of about 1.5 cm.
- It is not necessary to press the teeth to the bottom of the furrow; this can compact the soil, it will become difficult for the roots to break through it.
- If the land on the plot is too dry, you can water it. But they do it before planting garlic, and not after it.
- Above the landing, be sure to mulch to prevent premature germination of the teeth and protect them from freezing. As mulch, you can use sawdust, peat, humus, autumn leaves, fir twigs and more. A layer of mulch is about two centimeters.
Important! If the region is dominated by snowless winters, winter garlic should be covered with roofing paper or foil. When snow falls, the shelter is removed.
Winter plant care
It is very simple to care for onion crops:
- remove shelter in spring and remove mulch from the beds;
- fertilize the planting with nitrogenous fertilizers when the first green appears on the beds;
- it is necessary to water the culture in the active phase abundantly, when the heads grow, the amount of water is significantly reduced;
- at the end of June, arrows should be removed until they are longer than ten centimeters;
- when the lower leaves turn yellow, the crop is harvested. Usually, the winter variety is harvested at the end of July or the beginning of August.
Sow onion crops correctly, and get a good harvest of indispensable spices!
Details on how to plant garlic in the fall video instruction: