Among summer residents there was an opinion that grapes can be grown only in the southern regions, and the Urals, with its unpredictable summer and 20-30 degrees frosts, is not suitable for this crop. However, you can grow the vine in the Urals, if you know how to cover the grapes for the winter.
Growing grapes in the Urals requires proper selection of varieties and accurate implementation of agrotechnical recommendations.
Features of viticulture in the Urals
Early or mid-early grape varieties that mature in 3-4 months are best suited for planting. They must have winter hardiness. Do not confuse this property with frost resistance, which means the ability of grapes to withstand short frosts. Winter-hardy grapes are prepared for extreme temperature changes throughout the winter season. However, at very low temperatures, young vines may die, so in the Urals in winter they harbor grapes. To do this, experienced growers keep in the farm various covering materials: straw, boards, sackcloth, spanbond.
Preparatory work in the vineyard
Improperly covered vines threaten many dangers:
- young branches and roots can be food for mice;
- molds may form on branches;
- can freeze the kidneys.
- if the weather is dry in the fall, it is necessary to water the vineyard well and fertilize with minerals;
- make preventive treatment of bushes;
- remove the vine from the trellis and tie into bunches;
- prepare covering material and trenches for shelter.
Vineyard pruning rules
Pruning of the vineyard could be carried out in the spring, but in the fall it has several advantages:
- young, not yet mature vines can freeze in winter, therefore, they should be pruned after the leaves fall;
- pruning will reduce the volume of the bush, which will facilitate its shelter;
- spring begins sap flow - loss of juice from pruned branches will weaken the vine and reduce its yield.
The peculiarities of pruning grapes in the Urals are the following recommendations:
- should not be pruning bushes in the first year;
- it is necessary to remove all escapes and stepsons to a lignified branch;
- you should leave about 12 eyes and 4 shoots.
All material used for shelter should be decontaminated even after removing it from the vineyard in the spring, and is folded in a dry place. In the autumn you need to get it and prepare for use:
- review, cull and destroy damaged boards or straw mats;
- to collect and dry the fallen leaves, and then to carry out processing by disinfecting preparations;
- spruce spruce branches will become an excellent covering material - it will protect the vine from mice;
- prepare and dry medicinal plants that will scare away the pests - tansy, calendula, wormwood and others;
- Cover them with covering materials.
Vineyard Shelter for the Winter
There are different ways to shelter a vine. They need to be covered when the frost is below minus five degrees, as light frosts only harden the vine. The first time after the shelter is to monitor the air temperature. If it rises above six degrees Celsius, mold multiplication will begin, which will lead to the death of the vine. In this case, you need to remove the covering material, open the vine and ventilate, and when the temperature again drops to minus five, cover it.
Shelter on the deck
Covering the grapes, we must take care that his whips are raised above the ground, otherwise they may rot. First, lay the flooring of the boards on the bars, and on it are laid bundled vines. The place under the flooring and around it is cleaned of leaves, branches and other debris. Further, it is necessary to cover the grapes with an apricots, and from above to cover them with a covering material - a film or roofing material. Since each centimeter of snow cover retains one degree of heat, the half-meter thick snow will allow the grapes to winter without additional shelter.
However, if the winter is not very snowy, it is necessary to warm the vine. Sawdust, foliage, planks are laid out on a lap canopy, and on top they are covered with a film or other covering material. On the sides you need to leave a vent so that the vine can breathe freely. Should cover and the roots of the vine. A good way is to warm the tree trunk with fir branches covered with snow.
Shelter grapes under a layer of dry snow
Many use the air-dry method of harboring grapes. First, bend down the vine and pin it to the ground, but so that it is centimeters ten above the ground. Warm with foliage, sawdust or straw on top, then put burlap or dark film on the wire as a covering material and cover it at the edges with soil between the rows. Shelter must have air vents. From above it is covered with a layer of snow.
You can use 3-4 layers of covering material through which water does not penetrate, and grapes can breathe. During frosts, ice crust forms on it, which does not let in the cold.Attention! In March, when the snow melts, the covering material must be removed and aired the grapes - thus the mold plaque formed on the vine disappears.
After airing, the grapes should be covered again from spring frosts.
Vertical Grape Shelter
In some cases, the vine has to be covered right on the trellis. In this case, it is covered with fir branches from all sides and tied. Then the structure is covered with a thick layer of snow, so that a snow cap is formed. We must constantly make sure that the top layer of snow does not melt, otherwise the vine will freeze out. At the same time it is necessary to cover the roots - they are covered with earth and splashed with spice branches.
Vineyard Shelter with Laminate
Laminated polystyrene is an excellent covering material. Due to its low thermal conductivity and high air permeability, it will provide effective protection for grapes.
- remove the vines from the trellis, tie into bunches and spread out on the ground;
- stretch laminate over them;
- fasten the edges of the stones, and then sprinkle with a dense layer of earth;
- Leave both ends of the roll open for ventilation.
Removing shelter in the spring
Overwintered vineyard usually opens after the spring thawing of snow, when frosts will pass - around April or early May. At night, it is better to cover it with a film, as spring frosts are still possible. During the day, covering material is removed for several hours, but it is better to do this in the evening or in cloudy weather so that the vine does not get burned.
In order to stimulate the growth of grapes in spring, a vertical watering pipe is installed next to each bush. It should go into the ground to a depth of 50 cm.Tip! When night temperatures rise to 5 degrees Celsius and covering material is removed, 2-3 liters of water heated to 25 degrees Celsius are poured into the pipe.
It goes to the roots and heats them, causing the kidneys to wake up faster.
To protect the grapes from returning frosts at this time, trellis poles are installed next to the bushes, on which you can quickly throw and fix covering material.
Growing grapes requires both labor and time and experience. But they are more than pay off a rich harvest of delicious berries.