Each gardener grows currants on his plot, but it can be difficult for a beginner to decide on the choice of variety, since there are more than two hundred of them. In the 90 years, breeders bred Black Pearl variety currants, which received the title of “Masterpiece of Russian Breeding”. Consider his photo, description and reviews.
The authors of the Black Pearl variety are breeders TS Zvyagin and KD Sergeeva. A variety of currants was obtained in VNIIS behalf of I. V. Michurin by crossing two varieties of berries: Minay Shmyrev and Bredtorp.
In 1992, the black pearl hybrid of black currant was added to the State Register, and the opportunity arose to grow it in the following regions: Central Black Earth Region, Western and Eastern Siberia, Middle Volga Region, in the Urals and the North Caucasus.
Black pearls are similar to gooseberries in their characteristics and description, and are also representative of the golden currant species. The similarity is manifested in the downward branches and leaves. Some gardeners also note that the appearance of currant fruit resembles blueberries.
The shrub of this variety of currant has an average height, on average from 1 to 1.3 m. Its branches are spreading. Young shoots are distinguished by a bright green color and a curved shape. Over time, they woody and change their color gray with a yellowish tinge.
Oblong buds grow on short stalks and are colored in pink tones. The flowers of currant have the shape of a glass and a sepal of a reddish hue. The plant appears brushes with 6-8 berries, which are on strong petioles.
Currant leaves have a bright green color and an acute-angled plate with 5 lobes. Its surface is smooth and matte, and the edges are slightly folded. Serrated and large teeth, with white tips. In the photo you can see that the foliage on the currant bushes Black pearl bit.
Currant varieties Black pearl has an average duration of ripening. The average weight of the berries can vary from 1.2 to 1.5 g. Particularly large can reach 3 g. They are characterized by a round shape and the same size. Berries have a pleasant sweet-sour taste. Gardeners rate it at 4.2 points out of 5. The currant fruit is painted black, which glitters in the sun and resembles pearls. The dense skin envelops the pulp with large seeds.
The composition of the Black Pearl variety is different from other types of high vitamin C - 133.3 mg%, pectin - 1.6% and organic acids - 3.6%. It also contains various sugars - 9% and about 18% of dry substances.
The ripened fruits keep firmly on the stem and do not crumble for a long time. Currant separation is dry, which makes it easy to transport. Durable petioles, which hold the brush, allow to mechanize the harvesting of the currant Black pearl.
As a result of crossbreeding, the variety turned out to be well-known among summer residents. He inherited the best qualities of his predecessors.
This variety of black currant brings a good and regular crop. After planting the seedling in the soil, the Black Pearl will begin to bear fruit in 1-2 years. If you plant a young bush in the fall, in the summer you can collect the first, albeit small crop (1.5-2 kg). But before this, the plant must winter, take root and gain strength. In May, flowering occurs, and berries ripen in July.
The maximum yield is obtained for 5-6 years, from one bush you can remove up to 5 kg of fragrant berries. The average yield is 3-4 kg. These are significant indicators, but there are varieties in which they are higher.Important! Currants can be grown in one place for no more than 12-15 years.
Advantages and disadvantages
Currant variety Black pearls have several advantages:
- has winter hardiness, the plant does not freeze at temperatures down to -350WITH;
- resistant to anthracnose and kidney tick invasions;
- able to tolerate adverse environmental conditions, such as a sharp change in air temperature, dryness;
- precocity and stable yield;
- well preserved during transport and freezing.
Winter hardiness and hardening of the plant due to the fact that the selection of currants occurred in the Siberian latitudes.
The disadvantages include the vulnerability of the Black Pearl to the flour dew. As well as the faint aroma and sour taste, which not everyone will like. The variety is considered obsolete, since many improved species have already been bred. But thanks to a large number of advantages, the Black Pearl variety is still popular with gardeners.
Black Pearl variety berries are used both fresh and processed. Even after processing black currant retains most of the nutrients.
It is widely used in cooking, added to cakes, pies and desserts. Due to the high content of pectin in the fruit, jelly, marmalade, jam, jam and marshmallow are prepared from them. Used for the production of wine and tinctures.
The leaves of currant give a rich taste to canned vegetables, as well as protect them from spoilage. Of these, brew tea, which has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect. And for the treatment of children's diathesis prepare tea compresses.Important! Black currants can not be taken to people who have a tendency to the appearance of blood clots. It contains Vitamin K, which promotes blood clotting.
Despite the unpretentiousness of the Black Pearl currant variety, you need to adhere to some rules of agricultural engineering and take into account its features. The strength, yield and resistance of the plant to diseases depend on it.
Planting berry bushes can be during the whole growing season.
For autumn - this is the end of September or the first days of October. In order for the currant to take root and gain strength before the onset of frost, the air temperature during planting should not fall below +100C. Then in July it will be possible to harvest the first small crop.
It is recommended to plant shrubs in the spring before the buds swell. Throughout the first year, it will grow and strengthen. The first fruits of currant can be tried only in the second year. At the same time, no more than 2 kg of berries will be removed from one plant.Important! Carefully inspect the seedling when buying - its root system should be healthy and strong, and from the base of the shoot there should be at least 4 green buds.
Site selection and preparation
In order for the Black Pearl bush to feel comfortable and grow quickly, you need to allocate a suitable place for it:
- It should be sunny and open, but far from strong winds. Currants do not like shade and cramping, so the branches of shrubs should grow freely.
- Culture grows best on nutritious, loose and slightly acidic soil.
- For plants suitable slightly moistened area. Stagnation of water and drought should not be allowed.
If the currant grows in the shade and receive an insufficient amount of water, its fruits will become very acidic and noticeably shred.
A couple of months before planting the seedling, the plot chosen for it should be cleared of weeds and roots. The earth must be dredged to a depth of 50 cm so that it is loose and easily passes water and air. If the soil is poor, it is recommended to add 1 bucket of humus or compost to each root. Also, some gardeners make potash fertilizer and superphosphate. If landing is planned in the spring, all work needs to be carried out in the fall.
If the currant seedling root is a little dry, it should be soaked in water for a couple of hours, so that it has absorbed it. You can also add a growth stimulator to it, which will help the plant to strengthen the root system.
For planting currant varieties Black Pearl need:
- On the prepared site dig a hole with a depth and a width of 0.5 meters.
- If no fertilizer has been applied during digging, add it and mix with the ground. It can be humus, sand, compost and various potash supplements.
- Pour water over the hole to keep the ground wet.
- Straighten the roots and lower the seedling in the hole, slightly tilted to the side. The angle between the stem and the ground should be 45 degrees.
- Cover it with soil, slightly shaking the roots so that there are no voids between them. For more new shoots and roots to form, the ground level must be 5-7 cm above the root collar.
- Condense the soil around the currants and pour a bucket of settled water.
- Crop shoots 10-15 cm from the ground, leaving 5-6 green buds on them.
- Lay a layer of peat, branches or grass over the ground. Before frost, the bush must be filled with dry soil and mulched.
Currants of this variety should be planted when the air temperature still does not fall below 80S. Then she will have time to take root and easily transfer the winter.Important! Since the Black Pearl bushes are sprawling, they are recommended to be planted at a distance of 1.5 - 2 meters from each other.
Currant Black pearls will bring a stable and high-quality harvest, if you provide it with proper care:
- During flowering and fruiting, the plant is recommended to water abundantly, 2-3 buckets of water per root. While preparing for the winter, the bush should get enough moisture.
- When the grass around the currants, it should be immediately removed. To saturate the soil with oxygen, this process can be combined with loosening, while it is important not to damage the roots.
- If fertilizer has already been applied to the soil during planting, it is possible to begin feeding the plant in 3-4 years. In the spring - with urea, and in the fall - with potassium and phosphorus.
- Currant bush needs periodic pruning. The first is carried out during planting, while the shoots should remain 5-6 buds. In the future, broken, diseased and unnecessary basal branches are cut, and new ones are shortened.
Every year shoots that are older than 3 years are removed. The formation of the bush ends at 4-5 year. It should stay branches of different ages.Attention! If the soil around the bush is mulched with humus, then the need for weeding, loosening and fertilizing the soil with organic matter will disappear.
Pests and diseases
Currant varieties Black pearls can be affected by powdery mildew. This is a fungal disease that usually affects young bushes. Shoots, leaves and fruit branches cover a white patina, which eventually changes color to brown. The greenery is crumbling, and the currant becomes a curve. If time does not take action, the plant will die.
To combat the powdery mildew used copper sulphate. Gardeners process the Black Pearl shrubs before flowering or after harvesting. Of non-chemical means popular infusion of mullein or hay rot. The mixture is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 3. Insist three days and add the same amount of water. The resulting infusion filter and sprinkle currants with a spray. Repeat after 15 days and in the middle of June.
Black pearl varieties are usually rarely attacked by pests. But with the wrong care on his bush can live spider mite, aphid or sawfly. It is possible to get rid of them with the help of special preparations, for example, such as “Phyto-farm” or “Dichlorvos”.
On the well-groomed and strong currants rarely settle pests, it has good immunity to diseases.
Anna, 25, Voronezh A wonderful variety that deserves attention. Black pearl pleases with resistance to frost and minimum care requirements. The berries are very sweet, which is important for me, since I do not like sour currants. I bake cakes to order and always add it to the filling, everyone likes it. Oleg, 53, Ufa Purchased a pair of Black Pearl currant seedlings because I liked the name. And he did not regret, it fully justifies itself. The berries are large and shiny, like black beads. The grade is unpretentious, brought a good harvest even in low-sun and rainy summer. Svetlana, 35 years old, Samara. The currant variety Black Pearl is one of my favorite and proven ones. Ripened fruits can remain on the bush for a long time, turning into raisins over time. The berries are not very large, but juicy and sweet.
The Black Pearl currant variety is already obsolete, as there are many new and improved species that can compete with it and even surpass it. But some gardeners prefer it to him, because it is time-tested.