Gardeners love to grow early varieties of crops. When on the site the main varieties are still preparing for fruiting, the early ones already delight the owners with their harvest. Therefore, the grapes "Russian early" can often be found in the garden, even among inexperienced gardeners. This is a hybrid variety, obtained by crossing two forms - “Shasla Severnaya” and “Michurinets”.
Description of the characteristics and properties of grapes "Russian early" compiled by the Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking them. Ya. I. Potapenko of the city of Novocherkassk. Hybrid refers to the table variety of very early fruiting, which withstands low temperatures. Due to such qualities, it is grown in all regions of Russia, even in the Urals and in Siberia. Table grapes are characterized by excellent taste and are intended for fresh consumption. "Russian early" fully justifies its purpose. To make the description of the “Russian Early” grape variety as detailed as possible, the article will use photos, videos and reviews of gardeners.
First, we turn to the characteristics by which the growers choose this hybrid for planting.
Of course, this is the time of ripening of the crop. Already in July raspberry-red berries adorn the bushes of the “Russian Early” grape. At this time, on the bushes of other varieties only appear the first signs of the onset of fruit ripening. With proper care, the variety will delight in ripe grapes at the end of June. To accurately determine the time of harvest in your area, count 110-115 days from the moment of bud break. Starts an early grape fruit in 2-3 years after planting, subject to the agrotechnical cultivation.
Productivity One fruitful shoot forms 2-3 inflorescences. Each adult bush matures up to 25 kg of delicious berries. Young plants yield about 7 kg from a bush.
Bush srednerosly, but grows quite widely. An adult vineyard occupies an area up to 5 meters wide. The early grape variety has a peculiarity.
Attention! On the vine is not immediately formed a layer of perennial wood. This characteristic leads to a weak yield in the first 3-4 years of the bush.
Therefore, it is necessary for gardeners to annually make medium and short pruning in places where the growth thickness is 20-25 cm. This feature is noted in the description of the Russian Early grape variety.
The leaves on the plant are rounded or cordate, with weak pubescence on the lower plate. Located on long petioles, hold tight.
Clusters are friable, not very large. In order for the plant to form a large bunch, the growers leave no more than 2 inflorescences on one stalk. If you leave more, the ripening process will be delayed, and the clusters will be small.
The special value of grapes "Russian early" - is the berries (see photo).
They are medium in size but very tasty. The taste of the fruit is sweet with a slight sourness. The fragrance contains notes of caramel smell. Gardeners gave a variety of early grapes the second name - "Caramel". The grapes are oval in shape, reaching a weight of up to 6-7 g. The flesh crunches slightly and well accumulates sugar content. When moisture deficiency can begin to crack and attract insects. Fruits cling tightly to the stalk, so the variety tolerates transportation and berries remain on the bush for a long time. This makes it possible not to immediately harvest the entire crop.
A short video about grape varieties without comments:
Frost resistance of the early hybrid is very good. To -23⁰С variety does not require shelter. This characteristic, in combination with early fruiting, allows growing Early Russian grapes in areas with short summers and cold winters.
Resistance to many diseases of the culture is very good. It is very important that the variety is not affected by mildew and oidium, and is also not susceptible to rotting. It is also good at resisting tick attacks. But against the phylloxera in the "Early Russian" no immunity. Therefore, without the use of measures to combat pest yields will begin to decline, and after 6-8 years the bush will die.
Early variety is used for the production of wines and juices, but infrequently. Basically enjoys great demand from customers for fresh consumption.
Advantages and disadvantages
According to gardeners, Russian Early grapes have many advantages that led to its well-deserved popularity:
- very early fruiting;
- sufficient yield;
- unusual and pleasant taste;
- frost resistance;
- resistance to major grape diseases;
- the preservation of brushes on the bush without loss of taste;
- unpretentious care;
- good grafting
Among the disadvantages of winegrowers noted:
- not very large berries;
- low yield during the period of maturation of the bush;
- the tendency of berries to crack when irregular watering and prolonged rains;
- susceptibility to wasp and bee attacks.
Despite the minuses of the early variety, winegrowers love it very much and are happy to share their experience in cultivation.
Site Selection and Landing
Although the variety is considered unpretentious, the choice of location and planting should be given enough attention. On how well these activities are performed, the further development of the plant depends. The planting technology is standard, but there are some recommendations:
- It is better to plant the seedlings on the south side of the summer houses. So advised to place the grapes "Russian early" experienced gardeners in their reviews. They explain this by the fact that at night the building gives the plants the heat accumulated during the day.
- The variety is planted in autumn and spring, but it is preferable to do it at the end of the season. In this case, the seedlings are easier to adapt, and fully develop in the spring. Spring planting is performed only by saplings with buds in a dormant state.
- Hybrid well plant arboring.
The description and photos of the process steps help novice gardeners to plant “Russian Early” grapes correctly.
For the vineyard choose a sunny place with protection from the winds. Mark up the place and dig holes. Shrubs hybrid varieties greatly expand, so the distance between the two seedlings should be at least 3 meters. Each bush requires an area of 5-6 square meters. m. These values must be considered when marking. Pits for bushes do a depth of at least 50 cm. If planting occurs in the fall, the pits are prepared for 2 weeks, in the spring, you can shorten the period to 3-4 days. A drainage layer is placed on the bottom, then a mixture of humus and fertile soil (1: 2), as well as sand (0.5 buckets). The soil is watered, and when it settles a little, earth and wood ashes (0.5 kg) are added again. Leave a hole to land subsided, and then proceed to landing.
Be sure to pay attention to the condition of grapes. They must be free from damage, signs of damage by pests or diseases. Plants are placed in a hole, at the same time they drop in a watering tube, and grapes are sown with earth. Then watered.
An important point in the care of the bushes is watering. When growing the variety “Early Russian”, it will be necessary to carry out vegetative and water-charging irrigation. Moisture is carried out in autumn and spring, the first for grapes is more important. Autumn event increases the frost resistance of the bush. Terms of watering depend on weather conditions. In the summertime, two full watering varieties are enough. The first time after flowering, the second - when the berries begin to ripen. Water consumption per plant 10-20 liters.
Despite the fact that the description of the variety "Russian Early" is called unpretentious, to get the crop as in the photo, without dressings will not be easy. Meals are made during the entire growing season. In the spring, vines need a full range of nutrients. Winegrowers use complex mineral fertilizers. When it is time for fruit to ripen, potassium and phosphorus are added. Before the shelter of the bushes in the winter repeat feeding with complex mineral composition. Organics need to make no more than once every 2-3 years and in the fall. Top dressing of grapes combined with irrigation, so as not to harm the roots.
Another important point of care for the variety "Early Russian" is pruning and the formation of the bush.
Crop variety annually. From the regularity and quality of pruning depends on the yield and presentation of grapes. It is important to trim the grape "Russian early" on time. Too early - leads to loss of juice during the weeping of the vine, later leads to uneven development of the bush. Therefore, it is recommended to start at a time when constant heat is established. Experienced winegrowers know the special signs on the vine, suggesting the beginning of pruning.
Young gardeners need to follow some rules when growing a variety:
- The first 2 years of bush life remove only dry parts.
- This pruning is carried out after lignification of the vine.
- Young shoots are not pruned, while shtamb has a small size. Gardeners are waiting for it to increase, and then proceed to pruning the skeleton.
- When pruning grapes do not forget about the regulation of the load. On one shoot no more than 2-3 brushes are left.
Another topic that worries gardeners - protection from pests. The variety is affected by phylloxera and is very attractive for wasps. With phylloxera you need to start the fight from the moment of landing. To do this, properly prepare the soil. If the area is sandy soil, then it is very good. In another case, add sand to the pits.
Once infected bushes are noticed, they are destroyed. The grape leaves, on which the pest is seen, are cut off and burned. For the treatment used drugs "Fozalon", "Aktellik", "Fastak."
Wasps are plagued at the end of the season when the harvest is ready to be harvested.
It is necessary to fight with them in the usual ways - to destroy nests, to burn smoke bombs, to lay out baits. Special bags or a grid with small holes, which protects the grapes, save them from birds.
Video call from the gardener: