Kishmish Nakhodka grape is a variety that knows how to surprise its owners, and therefore is in constant demand. Agrotechnical, disease resistant grape varieties Nakhodka, is simple, but requires care. Nakhodka knows how to tell what a variety is required for maximum yield of the crop.
When picking grapes for the summer cottage from photographs and reviews, one should pay attention to the amazing success of the Kishmish Nakhodka grape - sold by gardening companies from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok! The love for the variety is associated with the excellent taste of berries, high yield, beauty of brushes. In addition, Kishmish grapes can forgive agrotechnical errors. Even with the most inept care, the grapes will save the "face" - a presentation. But Nakhodka always reminds of himself - first with rudiments, then with real bones. Having learned to understand it, Kishmish Nakhodka grapes will repay with boundless love.
Amateur breeder V.N. Krainov, creating a variety Kishmish Nakhodka, instilled in him the best qualities of his parents (Talisman x Kishmish Radiant). High yield - 6-7 kg from a bush. Early ripening grape varieties Nakhodka - the end of August. A bunch of grapes - 500-700 g, cylindrical. Berries - 5-7 g, equidimensional.Attention! The changing color - from light pink to red, lack of seeds or the presence of rudiments - evidence of adverse factors for the growth of Nakhodka grapes.
Pulp of grapes - sweet, nutmeg. Increased acidity of berries - lack of sun and trace elements.
Increased resistance of the Nakhodka grape variety to diseases. Frost resistance - minus 23 ° С.
The planting dates for the Nakhodka grape variety depend on the region: South of the country - spring-autumn; Central Russia, the North - the second half, the end of May.
Kishmish Nakhodka grapes will be sweet if they receive a place for growth near the southern wall or fence. The quality of the fruits of the variety is affected by the soil. Variety Nakhodka fruits well on light fertile sandstones.
Additional processing required: sand - making humus, compost at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 square. m; heavy clay - sand 1 bucket, compost 3 buckets per 1 square. m
With close groundwater, grape drainage is necessary.
The roots of the Kishmish grape varieties develop well in the soil of deep loosening. To do this, dig a planting hole - 100-120 cm deep, with sides of a square - 100 cm. If you plan to plant several bushes, then the distance should be between: plants - 150-200 cm, rows - 200-250 cm.
For better water permeability, the bottom is covered with broken red bricks, chopped dry branches, and plant residues - a layer of 20-25 cm. The upper fertile layer mixed with humus - 2-3 buckets, the hole is filled to the middle. The remaining soil mixture will be needed when planting the seedling.Important! A pit for spring planting is prepared in autumn, for autumn - the end of July.
Grape trellis for Kishmish Nakhodka grapes must also be prepared in advance. The support pillars are 250 cm high, buried 65–70 cm, the distance between them is 250 cm. The galvanized wire with a diameter of 3 mm is fixed in 4 rows. The first - 40 cm from the ground, the next - after 40-50 cm.
For a small vineyard - 2-3 bushes, instead of a wire, you can use half-bars 50x50 mm.
Shelter from frost - a simple ditch or a specially knocked down box, for the Nakhodka variety planted in Central Russia, should be prepared simultaneously with the supports.
When the soil temperature is 10-12 ° C, they land. The best planting material Kishmish varieties are 1-2 year old seedlings with a closed root system, purchased from reliable suppliers.
The stalk is removed from the container without breaking the coma. It is installed in the hole, filled with the remaining mixture, poured over with 1 bucket of water.
The open root system of cuttings of the Kishmish variety requires pruning: intact roots - up to 15 cm, patients are cut out completely. 3-4 shoots are left on the shoot.
In the landing pit make a mound. A sapling is set on top, straightening the roots on the slopes.Attention! Care must be taken that the tips of the roots are not bent.
Carefully pour water - 0.5 buckets, pour the remaining soil mixture. The grafting site for Kishmish variety cuttings should be above ground level. Squeeze the seedling tightly, pour 0.5 buckets on the soil, and grind the soil.
Kishmish grape varieties are good for forming a bush, which can be:
Fan-shaped formation is considered convenient for operation. A properly formed grape bush Kishmish Nakhodka has 4-6 sleeves of different length, extending from the base like a fan.
The formation of a fan begins with the first year of the seedling of the Nakhodka grape variety, on which 2-3 shoots are left. In the second year, shoots, before bud break, are pruned, leaving 2-3 peepholes. The strongest ones - future sleeves, are tied up on the trellis, the rest are removed.
In the third year pruning is carried out based on the presence of shoots. With 4-6 shoots - pruning is carried out for a length of at least 50 cm. With the formation of 2 shoots - for a length of 3-4 eyes. If the bush has 3 shoots, then 1 is formed as a replacement: 2 - cut to the length of the sleeve, on the replacement - leave 2-3 eyes. Shoots tied obliquely - fan.
Numerous summer shoots of the Nakhodka variety are broken out, keeping the upper branches on the branches. Left - as they grow, obliquely tied to the trellis.
From the shoots at the end of the sleeves, fruit units are formed in the fourth year. In each upper shoot is removed. Of the remaining ones: the lower one is cut into 2-3 peepholes, 5-8 peepholes are left on the other.
Replacing otlodonosivavshimi grapevines of the Nakhodka grape variety is prepared from annual shoots with 2-3 eyes left at the base of the bush. Since the wounds do not swim, pruning should be done carefully, at a right angle.
Left shoots of grapes Nakhodka, must be well matured, of medium thickness, with short internodes, intact, without signs of disease.
The bushes of the Nakhodka variety, covered for the winter, are cut twice. Autumn - preliminary, with the removal of seed-bearing, not mature, diseased shoots. Spring - the final forming shrub.
Important stages in the development of the Nakhodka grape are the first three years to be taken care of. Care for a young bush is provided timely:
The root system of grapes deep-penetrating. Grape Nakhodka is drought resistant. But the bushes of a young vineyard, evaporating 98% of the moisture for cooling, require regular watering - without waiting for the leaves to wilt.
Lack of moisture can affect adult plants of the Nakhodka grape variety - delayed yield formation. Excess water slows down the accumulation of sugar, inhibits the growth of shoots.
Loosening combined with weeding is carried out after each watering. It requires caution - young shoots of Nakhodka are easily damaged.A warning! Pests of grapes - moths, bugs, mites, shelter in weeds.
Nakhodka grape bushes grow quickly, needing for full development in fertilizers.
The best organic fertilizer is compost, containing the necessary elements:
- Nitrogen - providing growth of the vine;
- Phosphorus - promoting the development of the berry bunch;
- Potassium - accelerating the ripening of vines, fruits.
Compost can be used as mulch - a layer of 3-5 cm, without fear of overfeeding the grapes. Nutrients in a bound state are picked by the roots of the Nakhodka grape within the limits of what is needed.
However, the use of mineral fertilizers, causing delayed damage to human health, is undesirable. The necessary replacement components contain wood ash: calcium - 40% potassium - 12%, phosphorus - 6%. As well as a set of trace elements - boron, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, sulfur, zinc, copper.
The grape variety Kishmish Nakhodka is resistant to fungal diseases. However, climate quirks can trigger infections:
- Mildew - downy mildew;
- Oidium - powdery mildew;
- Fomopsisom - black spot;
- Botrytis - gray rot;
Nitrogen overfeeding of the Nakhodka variety contributes to powdery powdery mildew outbreaks. The outer side of the leaves are covered with oily spots. Internal - whitish. Ovaries, flowers, leaves dry.
A whitish-gray patina, which is a sign of powdery mildew, will appear on the leaves with sharp temperature drops. Turning to clusters causes cracking berries that rot, dry.
Raw summer can cause black spots on Kishmish Nakhodka Nakhodka grape leaf sheets. Fomopsis leads to the deterioration of the berries, the death of the sleeves.
Dampness becomes the cause of botrytis - gray rot.
Prolonged wet heat contributes to the appearance of brownish spots on the leaves, accompanied by a silvery gloss of the berries. Alternariosis causes wrinkled berries that are poorly stored.
Crude cool May-June causes the development of anthracnose. Gray spots on the leaves, inflorescences, shoots lead to the death of the crop.
The victorious procession of the Nakhodka grape from South to North is accompanied by hordes of insect pests:
- Small pillows;
- Grape Weeds;
A grape moth is a small moth that lays eggs on its buds, foliage, and ovary. Voracious caterpillars can lead to significant crop losses.
Shchitovki, like aphids, cling to plants, suck juice, weaken the bushes.
The cushion belongs to the family of pseudoschitovok. Settling on the underside of the leaves, they feed on sap, highlighting the whitish down.
Well mastered the northern territory of the itch - felt mite, 0.15-0.2 mm in size. Sucking juices, leaves behind a felted web. Infected leaves dry out. Productivity decreases.
Yellowish small aphid - phylloxera, is a quarantine pest. Lives mainly in the southern regions, but movements towards the north of the country are observed. Transferred by planting material, wind, animals. Able to lay several hundreds of eggs per season. Larvae are voracious, sucking juices from the roots. The bush is exhausted, quickly perishing.
No less damage to the grapes harvests is caused: wasps - eating flesh, birds - pecking berries.
The best way to protect grapes Nakhodka is the implementation of agrotechnical measures. Properly formed bushes, planted at a sufficient distance, are well ventilated, illuminated by the sun.
To resist sucking insects help infusions:
- Garlic - a glass of crushed mass insist day, add 50 g of soap, dilute to 10 liters of water;
- Ashes - 1 glass of wood ash per 10 liters of water, leave for a week, add 50 g of soap;
- Laundry soap - against gray rot, 100 g of soap per 10 liters of water;
- Milk with iodine - 1 liter x 15 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water;
- Tar soap - a pack of soap for 5 liters of water, against the shield.
Kapron mesh, bottles filled with broth, soured compote save from wasps.
Birds are scared away by ribbons of shiny paper, thin patches of white cloth, vegetable nets.
The fallen leaves serve as a signal for pruning the Kishmish Nakhodka grape variety, shelter for the winter. Vines untied from the trellis, collected in bunches, attached to the ground, covered with sawdust. The spruce lapnik will stop the mice. Cover with roofing material, fall asleep with snow, slightly tamped.
Alexander Kovtunov, 58 years old, Nevinnomyssk. An undoubted plus of Kishmish grape varieties Nakhodka Kraynova - high marketability. Large elegant clusters with a fairly large ovoid berry, a beautiful pink color. The taste is also not bad, with a light nutmeg, thanks to this, everything will live for a long time. Sergey Nikolaevich, 47 years old, Voronezh. Disease resistance is normal. Responsive to the care. One brush stretched out on more than 3 kilograms, a large berry - 10 g. However, last year there were rudiments in all the berries, but the year before last there was practically no one.
The grape Kishmish Nakhodka is resistant to fungal diseases, wasps are less affected. Variety painlessly reacts to erroneous pruning. The only thing that Nakhodka grapes does not tolerate well is a dismissive attitude. Then the owner has to spit pits.