Although new hybrids are constantly appearing on the market, old cherry varieties remain in demand among gardeners. One of the proven varieties is Shpanka cherry, known for its early fruiting and high yield.
The name Shpanka combines several varieties growing in different regions. The first mention of them met 200 years ago. Initially, the variety appeared on the territory of Ukraine as a result of natural cherishing of cherries and cherries.
A new variety is widespread. Her seedlings were brought to Moldova and the southern regions of Russia. Modern species of pork grow in the Volga region, the Moscow region, the Urals and Siberia.
There are several types of cherries Shpanka. When choosing a particular variety, they are guided by indicators of winter hardiness, productivity and characteristics of fruits.
The variety was included in the State Register in 2009 and recommended for planting in the Central Region. The tree is of medium size, with a rounded crown and straight shoots. Shpanka Bryansk has good self-fertility, resistant to fungal diseases.
The fruits are round, weighing 4 g. They have a light red color and tender skin. Pulp sweet and sour to taste, gives a lot of juice. Tasting properties are estimated at 3.7 points out of 5.
The tree is about 6 m high. The cherry is 4-5 g in weight, it ripens early. Spanka early better than other varieties withstand long shipments.
Resistance to diseases at an average level. Frost resistance of the order of -25 ° C.
Fruits are large, reaching a mass of 6 g, the main purpose - dessert. The bones can be easily separated from the pulp. Fruits are not suitable for transportation, it is recommended that they be used immediately after collection.
Cherry up to 4 m high, tolerates frosts up to -20 ° C. Fruits weighing 2-3 g, bright red, with pink flesh. The taste is sweet, sour is missing.
A variety of amateur breeding, often found in garden plots of the North-West region. The most winter-hardy grade Shpanki.
The tree is up to 3 m. For high yield, pollinators are definitely planted. Even ripe fruits have a pink color and light yellow flesh. The mass of cherries is 4-5 g. Up to 50 kg of fruits are removed from the tree.
Differs in fruits of scarlet color weighing 10-12 g. The yield from each tree is about 45 kg. The variety is resistant to temperature fluctuations, it is easily restored after a cold winter.
Low tree, reaching a height of 2.5 m. Cherries weighing 5 g, scarlet color. Average yield - 35 kg.
The variety is resistant to diseases and cold weather down to -30 ° C. Dwarf pork is zoned in the central region of Russia.
Has spread in the North Caucasus. The grade enters fructification for 6-7 year after disembarkation.
Prank Kranokutskaya samobesplodna and not prone to fungal diseases. The mass of fruits to 4 g. Fruits are not subject to transportation.
Types of cherries Shpanka have similar characteristics. All of them bring high yield, resistant to diseases and pests.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Cherry Shpanka resistant to drought and is able to tolerate the absence of moisture. However, winter hardiness in varieties is different. The most resistant to winter cold is Shpanka Shimskaya, which can withstand temperatures as low as -35 degrees.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening time
The self-fertility of the variety Shpanki is estimated below the average. To increase the yield, it is recommended to plant pollinators: varieties Griot Ostheims or Ukrainian, Resistant.
Cherries are valued for early ripening. Periods of flowering and harvesting depend on the region of cultivation. In the south, flowering occurs in May, and the crop ripens in late June. In the middle lane fruits are collected in the late days of July.
Fruiting varieties Shpanka stretches for 2-3 weeks. Fruits are formed on the bouquet branches. It is recommended to pick the cherries immediately after ripening, as they begin to fall off.
The first harvest from a tree is removed in 5-7 years after disembarkation. The average yield is 35-40 kg. The maximum yield (up to 60 kg) is harvested from trees aged 15-18 years.
Scope of berries
Cherry Shpanka has a sweet taste, so it is used fresh. The variety is suitable for freezing, making jam, compote and other blanks. Fruits do not tolerate long transport.
Disease and Pest Resistance
Variety Shpanka retains resistance to major diseases and pests of culture. To protect the landings it is recommended to perform preventive treatments.
Advantages and disadvantages
Pluses cherry Shpanka:
- good drought resistance;
- fruit taste;
- stable fruiting;
- high disease resistance;
- early maturation;
- prolonged fruiting.
The main disadvantages of varieties Shpanka:
- low fruit transportability;
- low earlyness;
- branches often break under the weight of fruits.
Cherry is planted in a selected place that meets a number of conditions. Consider its light, the quality of the soil and growing near the culture.
For planting choose the autumn period in late September or early October. Terms of work depend on weather conditions of the area. It is important to plant a tree after a leaf fall, before a cold snap.
Planting work can be postponed until spring. First you need to wait for the snow to melt and the soil to warm up. However, landing is carried out before the start of sap flow.
Choosing the right place
The place for the Shpanka variety is chosen subject to a number of conditions:
- natural daylight;
- lack of strong wind;
- fertile drained soil.
Cherry is planted in an open area, remote from fences and buildings that create shade. In the lowland, the tree is exposed to moisture. For culture choose a place on a hill or a flat area.
Cherry prefers a light soil rich in nutrients. The tree develops well on black soil, sandy and loamy soil. If the soil is clay, you need to add coarse sand.
What crops can and should not be planted next to the cherry
Next to Shpankoy planted any varieties of cherries or cherries. Cherry without any problems close to other shrubs and fruit crops:
The tree is removed from other shrubs 1.5 m or more. Under it you can land shade-loving herbs.
It is not recommended to place the cherry next to the following crops:
- an Apple;
- birch, linden;
- fur tree, pine tree;
- raspberry, sea buckthorn, currant;
- tomatoes, peppers, potatoes.
Apple trees and other trees take many substances from the soil and create shade. Cherry planted at a distance of 5-6 m from them.
Selection and preparation of planting material
In the nursery, choose one or two-year-old seedlings varieties Shpanka. It is best to choose healthy plants with a developed root system, without cracks and other damage.
Before planting the roots of the seedling for 3 hours immersed in clean water. To improve the survival rate of seedlings, a drug that stimulates root growth is added to the water.
Procedure for planting:
- Pre-dig a hole 50 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep.
- 1 l of wood ash and 100 g of potassium-phosphorus fertilizer are added to the soil.
- Part of the land poured into the pit.
- When the soil settles, start planting. The seedling is lowered into the pit, its roots are straightened and covered with soil.
- The soil is tamped. The plant is abundantly watered with warm water.
Subsequent care for the culture
The cherry tree needs watering only during flowering, if a drought has set in the region. 4-5 liters of warm water are poured into the near-stem circle.
Cherry fed in the early spring after the snow melted. For watering prepare infusion of chicken manure or slurry. Before and after flowering, watering is performed with a solution containing 30 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers.
In order for the tree to endure winter, abundant watering is done in late autumn. Cherry spud, and the soil is mulched with humus. To protect the trunk from rodents apply spruce, mesh or roofing felt.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cherry is subject to a number of diseases listed in the table:
The appearance of dark spots on the fruit. Over time, the fruit mummified.
Treating trees fungicide Topaz.
Yellow spots on the leaves, which quickly spread and darken. Fruits do not develop and dry.
Spraying trees Bordeaux liquid.
White dots on the fruit, gradually developing into dark spots. Affected fruits mummify and fall off.
Spraying the fungicide Poliram.
The table shows the main pests of cherries:
Signs of defeat
Twisted leaves appear on the shoots. Aphid larvae suck the juice from the leaves and weaken the immunity of the cherry.
Processing planting drug solution Fitoverm.
The pest lays larvae that feed on the flesh of the cherry.
Spraying trees with a solution of drug Kemifos.
Red-yellow beetles 5 mm long, feed on buds, flowers and leaves.
Beetles are shaken off the trees and harvested by hand. Trees are sprayed with a solution of the drug Fufanon.
Cherry Shpanka - early ripe variety with delicious fruits. Its varieties are grown in various regions of Russia, valued for yield and resistance to disease.