Modern varieties of fruit crops may have good immunity to one or several diseases, have resistance to a certain type of pests - breeders have been achieving this effect for years. But unfortunately, there are still no such trees or shrubs that would never be sick and not interested in insect pests. Pest and disease control is an important part of the maintenance that is vital to a fruit garden. A gardener may conscientiously cut his trees, fertilize and water the soil, but this does not protect the garden from a small pest or infection that can reduce all human labor in a few days.
Descriptions and photos of the most dangerous pests of fruit trees are given in this article. Here will be told about the most common diseases of fruit trees and shrubs, and about effective methods of combating them.
Causes death fruit orchards
The goal of a good gardener is a well-groomed healthy garden that gives stable yields of tasty fruits. Unfortunately, not only humans like fragrant fruits - they are loved by various insects. There are also such pests that eat only leaves, buds, or feed only on the bark of the tree. There are those who devour everything that comes their way.Attention! The main reason for the attack of pests on fruit trees is that plants are the main food for most insects.
In addition to the main reason, there are also indirect ones that can aggravate the condition of fruit trees:
- External damage to wood. Rodent-eaten bark, improperly pruned shoots, wind-broken branches — all this causes a weakening of the tree, which, in turn, is an easy prey for pests and diseases.
- Temperature damage that may occur when the garden is exposed to too high or critically low temperatures. Temperature extremes are especially dangerous: sudden warming in winter, hail and a sharp cooling of the air in the middle of summer, cool and humid night air combined with daytime heat.
- Lack or excess of moisture. Each gardener is aware of the strong dependence of plants on the amount of water they receive. At the same time, excessive precipitation or watering, as well as periods of prolonged drought, are equally dangerous for a tree.
- Power imbalance. Everyone knows that cultivated plants need to be fed organic and mineral fertilizers. If the amount of fertilizer is not calculated correctly, the plant will necessarily react to this: the leaves will change their shade, they may twist or go stained, the shoots turn red or brown, the appearance of the fruits will become unattractive.
Important! Not only does any of these factors have a negative effect on the condition of the orchard, it is also the cause of weakening the tree - diseases quickly cling to it, pests rapidly multiply and destroy the plant or its parts.
Types of insects
The one who believes that it is the crop of the orchard that is necessary to save from pests is mistaken. Yes, insects are often attracted to juicy and fragrant fruits ripening on tree branches. But absolutely any part of a plant (from foliage to roots) can become food for some species of these pests.
It is accepted to divide fruit pests into groups depending on their "culinary" preferences:
- fruit pests - those that are solely interested in the fruits of the tree. Among them there are those that eat the flesh of the fruit (for example, sawfly), but there are also those who are interested in bones (weevils). The caterpillars of many butterflies are very dangerous for the orchard, as at this stage of their development they are omnivorous and can quickly cause irreparable damage to the crop.
- Leafy pests are interested in the green part of the plant - the leaves. The destruction of leaves worsens photosynthesis, with the result that any plant dies. In this group there are insects that leave holes in the leaves, and there are also such pests that fold the leaf plate into a tube or destroy it entirely.
- Bark parasites use this part of the tree to satisfy their own hunger (ticks, bark beetles). And the majority of all existing pests penetrate the cracks of the bark and hide there from the winter cold.
- Root pests are probably the most dangerous of all, because they are not visible, and for a long time the gardener may not realize that the tree is in danger of an emergency death. The main representatives of this group are weevils and larvae of beetles. A tree with damaged roots dies very quickly and it is almost impossible to save it.
- Omnivorous pests - a real sea for the orchard. For example, aphids can drink juice from any part of the plant, so a large amount of this parasite is a sure death for a tree.
In order to get better acquainted with dangerous pests of the orchard, one should study their photos and descriptions, learn about the habits of these insects and about the means by which they can be dealt with.
Caterpillars are big lovers of fruit and berry plants, because their main food is juicy foliage. The caterpillar can leave holes in the leaf plate or eat it completely.Attention! The most popular types of caterpillars in domestic gardens: silkworm, hawthorn, leafworm, apple moth, goldtail beak.
Caterpillars begin their life journey at the very beginning of spring. At this time, the pests only wake up and are small, so it is still easy to fight them. To destroy the caterpillars on fruit trees in several ways:
- spray the tree with chlorophos or karbofos (40 grams per 8 liters of water);
- use captan or phthalan for treatment (40 grams per 7 liters of water);
- any mineral oil at the same time protects the tree from ticks;
- removing and cutting pests;
- the destruction of clutches (effective for silkworms);
- cutting out affected branches;
- kerosene bark treatment.
Tip! It is easy to notice the presence of caterpillars on the fruit tree - they are given out by heavily damaged leaves. Therefore, you need to regularly inspect the garden and begin to fight pests as early as possible.
These pests are good because they are clearly visible on the shoots of fruit plants. Eliminate the larvae can be mechanically - just collect them manually. The larva looks like a yellowish or dark gray ring, covered with clear mucus. On the leaves of the tree the larvae leave holes and translucent traces of dried mucus.
If the number of larvae on a tree is large, it is very dangerous - pests will quickly destroy all the leaves and disrupt the photosynthesis of the plant. Therefore, in such cases, you should not hesitate and be cautious - only a strong chemical tool will help. From biological products you can try Entobacterin, which is safe even at the stage of fruit ripening.
Attention! The larvae are activated by waves corresponding to their stages of reproduction. Expect these pests should be in early May and early July.
Weevil from another beetle can be distinguished by the presence of a long trunk, which is a continuation of its head. Thanks to this powerful trunk, the pest can eat and tender leaves, juicy fruits, and hard bones or tree bark.
The first wave of weevils appears by mid-April and is engaged in eating buds. The presence of these pests can be guessed by transparent drops near the buds of the tree. If you open such a kidney, a cavity is found inside - the pest has destroyed the next leaf.
Important! There are apple, cherry and kidney weevils.
You can destroy the kidney weevils with a solution of chlorophos (20 grams per bucket of water). If the gardener is against "chemistry", you need to remember that weevils are ordinary beetles that do not hold well on the branches. Effectively shaking off pests with the use of physical force. Before the procedure, it is recommended to lay a cloth or film around the tree, and then collect the beetles and throw them into the salt water.
Tip! Shaking off pests is possible only in the morning hours, while there is no sun, and the temperature has not risen above +8 degrees. At this time, weevils are inactive and will not be able to fly away.
Medianitsy - very unpleasant pests that can jump and fly over considerable distances. Leafs are fed with juice of leaves and fruits. You can learn about their presence by the characteristic sugar tracks on all parts of the tree. A fruit damaged by a copperfish is covered with a transparent film, later a fungus develops on the peel and the process of decay is activated.
You can fight this pest with the help of a nitrafen solution - 350 grams per bucket of water. When spraying before flowering, you can add karbofos. A week after flowering, fumigation of the fruit tree can help.
About the defeat of stone fruit fruit aphids can be found in early spring. To do this, in March, the owner needs to go out into the garden and look for ants in the trees: these insects are the ones most interested in aphids.Important! Early spring garden processing is very effective in preventing aphids. To do this, you can use a solution of blue vitriol or urea.
When the aphid has multiplied, it is easy to see it: the tree or its individual parts are covered with sticky small cobwebs, the leaves curl, and the shoots are stunted in growth. At this stage, you will need a stronger drug, you can use Thiacloprid or other "chemistry".
Along with pests, gardeners are often plagued by diseases of the bark, roots, shoots and leaves of fruit trees, so their treatment is one of the main tasks of a professional. Unfortunately, various diseases that threaten fruit trees, there is no less than pests. All of them manifest themselves in different ways, and they should be treated with special methods.
You can learn about the fact that a tree has become ill with cancer by the following characteristic features:
- the bark on some shoots clenched and cracked in concentric rings;
- in winter a red growth appeared on the bark;
- damaged branch became darker than the rest.
Treating a tree must be done cardinally: diseased branches are cut, wounds are treated with garden putty.
Attention! Spraying a garden with drugs of copper can be a cancer prevention. It is necessary to carry out such processing in the fall, after leaf fall.
This disease only threatens bone crops. At first, spots with bright edges appear on the leaves. The later stages of bacterial cancer are characterized by the appearance of gum, which seeps through the cortex. Sick branches gradually die off.
To cure a tree, you need to cut out all the damaged areas and treat the ulcer with garden pitch. For prevention, you can spray the garden with copper in August, September and October.
This disease appears in the event that the spring is issued too wet. Flower brushes of apples, pears and plums become brown and begin to dry. To prevent the spread of the disease, you need to radically remove all infected shoots and ovaries.
The fruits of fruit trees are the first to suffer from this disease. On ripening fruits appear yellowish rings of plaque. Later, the whole fruit turns brown and becomes soft - until it completely rot.
To prevent the disease from spreading, you need to pick off the infected fruits and collect them from the ground near the tree.
The shoots and leaves of the diseased plant become brown and gradually dry. In early spring, a translucent liquid begins to seep from the infected parts. If a case of bacterial burn is noticed in the garden, it is necessary to urgently prune the patient shoot 60 cm below the lesion.Important! When a large part of the tree is already sick, it will have to be uprooted and burned until the entire garden is damaged.
Pests and diseases of fruit trees are a constant headache for a gardener. Experienced owners know that it is very difficult and difficult to treat plants, it is much more correct to carry out prevention and follow the recommendations for care. Pests and diseases manifest themselves in different ways, before treating a garden, you need to find out what exactly it suffers from.