Many newcomers to viticulture, trying to understand the variety of varieties and modern hybrid forms of grapes, make the mistake of believing that the old varieties no longer make sense to grow because they were replaced by new, more stable and easier to handle. Of course, in many ways, selection has indeed made a huge step forward, and for very many vegetable and fruit crops, old varieties are often incompatible with new ones obtained in recent decades.
But the grapes were always grown by real enthusiasts of their work, for whom taking care of their vegetable plants was even more than a common hobby. Not in vain, it was precisely from the environment of wine-growers who received the maximum number of well-known and now popular hybrid forms of grapes, pleasing with their characteristics of yield, taste and stability.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the Rizamat grape, bred more than half a century ago in Central Asia, still remains unsurpassed in some of its characteristics, and above all in taste and productivity. Yes, it is necessary to make a lot of efforts to grow it, but the result is worth it and real growers understand this well. It is for this reason that the Rizamat grape is still grown in many plots and, perhaps, even those who once removed it, still regret it. Description of the variety and photos of the incomparable Rizamata can be found in this article, but it will be much more difficult to find its seedlings. Moreover, in recent years a large number of varieties have appeared which, trying to hide behind his name, are trying to find a buyer. But almost all of them are practically incomparable with the true grape variety Rizamat.
The grape variety Rizamat is unique in that it is equally excellent when used fresh and when dried as raisins. Therefore, this variety is often called not just table, but even table-raisin. The Rizamat grape was obtained in the middle of the last century in Uzbekistan by the famous wine grower Rizamat Musamuhamedov, in whose honor he received his name. Parents of this variety were local grape varieties Katta-Kurgan and Parkent. But their offspring surpassed both parents with their characteristics.
Growth form in the bushes of Rizamata is so significant that this variety is not even recommended to be planted in the general row. At least, when planting it is necessary to retreat from the nearest grape bush 5-6 meters. It is best to give him full freedom in growth and plant alone, especially since his flowers are bisexual, which means there are no problems with pollination and the presence of nearby other grape varieties is not at all necessary.
At the same time, the leaves do not differ in especially large sizes, they are round, weakly dissected, bare from the bottom and have about five lobes.
Paceni grow throughout the season and is very intensive, so they need to be regularly removed, but cutting the bushes, especially in the spring and summer is not recommended. Already at the end of the summer, when the crop is ripe, small chasing of the shoots is allowed. The shoots of this variety are distinguished by good maturity, and their small pruning will allow them to ripen over their entire length.
The dustiness and setting of brushes at Rizamata are at a good level.Tip! It is recommended to leave no more than one brush for one shoot in order not to overload the bush.
In terms of ripening grapes Rizomat belongs to the mid-early varieties. For full maturity it needs 130-150 days from the beginning of the growing season, and the sum of active temperatures should be at least 3000 °. Usually, Rizamat begins to ripen in the southern regions of Russia from late August to mid-September.
The cuttings of this variety have good rooting, which cannot be said about the survival of grafts. Therefore, the propagation of varieties by grafts is rather difficult, while the cultivation of own-rooted seedlings does not present any particular problems.
After ripening, berries should not be overdone on the bushes, they can quickly lose their presentation. It is better to harvest the crops as soon as the grapes ripen. Moreover, the wasps also adore this grape variety and are not averse to eating it entirely.
What else the Rizamat grape is famous for is its tremendous yield. On average, 200-250 centners of berries are harvested per hectare of planting. But this says little to an ordinary summer resident, but if you say that 70-80 kg of grapes can be harvested from one bush, this fact is already able to impress anyone.
But unfortunately, on this list of merits of the variety ends. And you can move on to its shortcomings. Rizamat grapes do not tolerate frosts below -18 ° C, which means that it needs very good shelters even in the south of Russia. He will not be enough several layers of polyethylene and burlap. Most likely, you will need to cover the vines with earth, which, of course, is very time consuming.
In addition, Rizamat is characterized by instability to diseases and, above all, to oidium, or in a different way, to powdery mildew. According to various sources, he needs from 3-4 to 5-7 treatments against diseases for the season. True, in the modern world this has become easier than in past years.
Attention! A wide range of reliable fungicides is able to fully protect the grapes.
Well, in order to get a bountiful and high-quality crop, the grapes need regular watering and fertilizing, in addition, he is one of the adherents of high agricultural background. This means that before planting the bushes of grapes, the soil should not only be maximally free from weeds, but should also be fully fertilized and picked up.
Characteristics of bunches and berries
Rizamat can be justly proud of the appearance of its berries and clusters, and their taste qualities.
- Clusters have a loose conical shape with branches of various sizes.
- Their size is usually large and very large. The weight of an average bunch makes 700-900 grams, but quite often brushes weighing two, and even in three kilograms meet.
- The clusters are not very dense, they can be called rather loose. In the video below you can examine in detail the clusters of a young grape bush Rizamat.
- The berries are also large, their weight can reach up to 14-15 grams.
- The shape of the berries is oblong, cylindrical. In length, they can reach 4-5 cm. Although sometimes the berries are of the usual oval shape. The most interesting thing is that Rizamata has several different forms of berries on the same bush.
- The skin is thin, the taste is completely imperceptible, pink in color, and on the one hand the berries are darker and more saturated than on the other.
- Berries are covered with a waxy coating of medium density.
- The flesh of Rizomat grapes is very dense and crispy.
- Semen a little, about 3-4 per berry and they are almost invisible when eating. It is for this reason that raisins, absolutely stunning in taste and beauty, can be made from Rizamata berries.
- The taste is sweet, juicy, completely inimitable. Sugariness can dial from 18 to 23 Brix. The level of acidity is 5-6 g / l. Tasters give its berries one of the highest marks - 9.1 points on a 10-point scale.
- The use of universal - Rizamat is a real delicacy in fresh form, and, in addition, it turns out very beautiful and delicious raisins. Of course, it is possible to make both juices and compotes from it, but even somehow it is a pity to let such beauty be recycled.
- Berries are well stored and can withstand short transport.
Twins and "descendants" of Rizamata
Rizamat was and remains such a popular grape variety, despite numerous attempts to discredit it by inept growers, that it has a lot of twins.
One of the most common twins of the Ukrainian selection also has many additional names, but genetically it is in no way connected with the real Rizamat. It is a completely separate variety, which somewhat resembles Rizamat in the form of bunches and berries, but otherwise has nothing to do with it.
Even judging by the description of the grape variety Rizamat stable and reviews on it with a photo, it is difficult to confuse it with a real Rizamata, since the clusters are not so large, the color of the berries is lighter, almost white with a slight pink tinge. It ripens much later than the usual Rizamata, and in terms of taste characteristics they are not comparable at all.
According to the stated characteristics, his disease resistance is higher than that of Rizamat, although judging by the reviews of winegrowers, this indicator is also controversial. His flowers are female, so they require a pollinator. It has a huge growth force, in this respect it is comparable to Rizamat, but still, in the opinion of most winegrowers, it is no more than a commercial ploy to give such a name to this grape.
The famous trio
Many believe that the three very popular hybrid forms of Krainov's breeding: Transformation, Novocherkassk's Anniversary, and Viktor, in many ways resemble Rizamata grapes. Indeed, the grapes and berries are very similar, but at least these forms exist quite independently and do not claim the right, at least to some extent called Rizamato.
The Slava Moldavia grape variety, which is also called the Rizamata early or Shahine of Iran, looks quite like Rizamat. But the berries are still smaller in weight and size, the resistance to diseases is almost the same, and to taste it can seriously upset.
Descendant of Rizamata
Breeder Kapelyushny bred another interesting hybrid form derived from a cross between Rizamata and Talisman, which he originally named the Descendant of Rizamata. The form turned out quite successful, with berries similar to Rizamata berries, otherwise it requires more detailed study. In recent years, she was renamed Juliana, so as not to excite passions around Rizamata.
Finally, on the Internet you can find a variety called Black Rizamat. This is reminiscent of outright fraud, since there is currently no confirmed data on the existence of such grapes, and its description is fully consistent with the description of the usual Rizamata.
Those who really grew Rizamat on their plots are very happy with their grapes and are not going to part with it, unless due to exceptional life circumstances.Vyacheslav, 54 years old, Rostov Region I have been growing for about 20 years, I consider it one of the best grapes. Of course, not without whims, but its productivity, and also taste and commodity qualities are worth it. I do not know of another variety, which could be compared with him for the entire set of characteristics. I plant it most often separately from other varieties, I let it on the arch for the best ventilation and ripening. This variety requires a fairly long trim for 12-14 eyes, while the whole bush consists of about 50 eyes. If pruning is shorter, then the yield may deteriorate, and the bush will grow much. On one vine is traditionally left one brush. And I cut it only in the fall, so as not to spoil the yield. Many talk about its instability, so here I have enough of the traditional three or four treatments per season, so that there is not a single spot on the leaves. As for the shelter for the winter, I just take off the vines from the supports and cover it with a layer of thick polyethylene and press it with bricks, Rizamat winters well in such conditions.
Vladimir, 48 years old, Astrakhan region I live in the steppe zone, where in summer the terrible heat and rains are relatively low, but in winter the frosts can reach -30 ° C. My bushes Rizamata will be 6 years old. I splash them only once per season and have not observed any illnesses for all 6 years at all. I believe that in my area the stability of Rizamata is at the level of Kodryanka or Arcadia. And it matures approximately in one term with Talisman.
Many of the modern forms and varieties of grapes introduced into the culture for some people still cannot replace one old, but unsurpassed in some ways varieties. Such is the Rizamat grape, for someone obsolete and unstable, and for true connoisseurs and connoisseurs of taste - a real diamond in the grape collection.