Bulgarian pepper belongs to thermophilic cultures of the nightshade family. Its fruit is considered a false berry, hollow and containing many seeds. Bulgarian or, as it is also called, sweet pepper came to Russia from Latin America. There, this culture is considered to be perennial, but in the local climate, where summer is short and cool, peppers grow only one season.
For summer residents and gardeners on the eve of the new season, the issue of choosing pepper varieties for planting is topical. What varieties of peppers to choose, how to grow this vegetable - all this can be found in this article.
What are the different varieties
All varieties of bell pepper belong to the self-pollinated. In order for the ovary to appear, insects or human help are not needed - the flowers are pollinated without help.
Important! However, the plant can be pollinated by bees. Therefore, it is not necessary to plant peppers of different varieties nearby, and especially, to plant a bitter vegetable together with a sweet.
Bulgarian pepper differs according to several criteria, such as:
- The shape and size of the fruit - there are round vegetables, oblong, very large and small.
- The shade of the vegetable - there are fruits of green, red, white, purple, yellow flowers.
- Maturing terms - early ripe, middle and late ripe fruits.
- Varieties and hybrids.
- The growing season is the time it takes to grow ripe vegetables from seeds.
Choosing varieties of peppers for the site, it is necessary to take into account all these qualities - only so the harvest will delight the owner.
How to grow pepper
Regardless of the variety, the method of growing these vegetables is almost the same. Bulgarian pepper, above all, loves warmth. In the southern regions, these vegetables can be grown right on the beds, but for the north of the country it is better to choose cold-resistant hybrid varieties or to plant the plants in the greenhouse.
In the climate of Russia, sweet peppers should be planted in a seedling manner. The vegetation period of this plant is quite long - about 100 days. In order to somehow reduce this time, the seedlings are being prepared in early February.
The selected pepper variety must be prepared for planting, for this:
- From the fall, choose a suitable site - sunny, sheltered from the wind. The soil should be loose and fertile, with a neutral level of acidity.
- Soil fertilized with mullein or bird droppings, you can buy ready-made ammonium fertilizer. Fertilizers are sprinkled in the fall before digging up the site. But you can do this in the spring, a couple of weeks before the transplanting.
- Seeds of peppers are planted according to the scheme 6x6 cm in a common box. Stand under the film until the first shoots. The air temperature for the normal development of seedlings should be in the range of 24-27 degrees.
- When the first leaves appear, the seedlings dive into disposable cups, each of which is planted with one plant.
- Planted in the ground can be seedlings with 7-8 true leaves. The air temperature should be at 20 degrees.
- Between the rows leave a distance of 30-40 cm, the same intervals are left between the seedlings in the same row.
Pepper needs regular and abundant watering, if the plants do not have enough moisture, they will remain low, and the fruits will be dwarf and underdeveloped.
Bulgarian pepper bears fruit for a long time - more and more new inflorescences appear on the bushes. In early August, the tops of the bushes need to pinch, and cut off all the flowers. Of these, they will not have time to ripen a normal vegetable, but later ovaries can harm growing peppers.
Tear down the bell pepper slightly greenish, it gains maturity during storage. With this approach, you can significantly increase the yield.
The best varieties of bell pepper
If you read reviews of gardeners and gardeners from different regions of the country, you can understand that each of them has their own favorite variety. Moreover, every year new varieties appear, and 2019 will not be an exception.
The choice of variety should be based not only on the preferences of the owner, but also on the characteristics of the plot. Pepper needs a suitable soil composition, regular watering and meticulous care - this vegetable does not grow by itself, you need to take good care of it.
The next step in the selection of varieties of pepper is a way to grow it: in the open field or in the greenhouse. For open ground, especially the northern regions, only early varieties of Bulgarian pepper are suitable. Middle and late ripe peppers simply do not have time to ripen in a short summer period.
For the south and center of the country, varieties with any speed of ripening are suitable, but for the North it is better to choose early ripe pepper.
Bulgarian pepper "Big Mom" is valued for its taste - its flesh is very fragrant and juicy. Fruits can be used for salads, any other dishes and canning.
Shrubs grow tall - up to 100 cm, and spreading. On the branches a lot of ovaries with large fruits, weighing up to 200 grams. The thickness of the walls of the fruit is about 13 cm, it is a fleshy variety.
Mature fruits are colored in a rich orange color. The first vegetables you can eat on the 120th day after planting seeds for seedlings. It is possible to grow up a vegetable both in an open ground, and in the greenhouse.
One of the mid-season varieties is Bogatyr. The first fruits appear on the bushes on the 120th day after sowing seeds. Bushes rather sprawling and tall - in height to 0.6 meters.
Young fruits are colored green, have a slightly bumpy surface and prismlike shape. By the time of technical maturity, the peel changes shade to bright red. The wall thickness of the fruit is 5.5 mm.
Bulgarian pepper "Bogatyr" has excellent taste, it is used for cooking cold and hot dishes, as well as for canning.
It is possible to grow such grade both in the greenhouse, and on a bed. With one square meter of soil you can get up to 7 kg of large fruits, weighing about 180 grams. The culture is resistant to most diseases typical of peppers.
Middle-early variety "Swallow" produces fruit on the 110th day after planting in the ground. Pepper is suitable for growing in any way: in a greenhouse, greenhouse or garden.
In order to harvest a bountiful crop, it is necessary to break off the upper processes before the first branch. This form provides the appearance of a set of ovaries on the side branches. The height of the bushes reaches 0.6 meters.
Fruits turn out smooth, have a cone-shaped form and a salad shade. You can pick vegetables when their skin turns scarlet, and the wall thickness reaches 5 mm. The mass of the ripe fruit of this variety will be 90 grams.
With proper care and formation of the bush, the yield of the variety is quite high, the fruits have good taste.
One of the earliest varieties ripening on the 110th day is the "Atlas". The shrubs of this plant are small, but spreading, the leaves are also small. But the fruits grow large - weighing up to 170 grams.
The maturity of vegetables can be determined by the bright green color of the skin. Picked vegetables are stored for a long time and tolerate transportation; peppers turn red during ripening.
Inside, the fruit is divided into three chambers with seeds, the pulp is quite juicy - the wall thickness is 6 mm. With proper care per square meter of land planted with this variety, you can get up to 5 kg of vegetables.
Bulgarian pepper "Belozerka" is considered one of the most common on the garden plots of Russia. This is due to the high yield - with proper care from a meter of soil you can remove up to 8 kg of excellent vegetables.
Fruits ripen on the 112th day after sowing seeds, which allows us to attribute the "Belozerka" to early varieties. Their conical shape, with a pointed tip. The skin is slightly ribbed, may have several shades - from beige to red.
The thickness of the walls of the fruit reaches 7.5 mm, and the weight of one vegetable is 130 grams. Fruits ripen amicably, differ excellent tastes. Pepper of this variety can be eaten raw, and canned and pickled.
Compact bushes are resistant to most diseases of solanaceous crops. Peppers can be grown in open ground, the yield of the variety reaches 8 km². Vegetables are well stored and transported.
Superearly sweet hybrid "Big Papa" produces the first fruits already on the 92nd day after planting seeds in the soil. Culture can be grown in open ground, and under temporary shelter. Bushes grow small, have many leaves and flowers.
Peppers can be plucked from the bushes when their shade turns purple. During storage, the ripening of the fruit occurs, they become dark brown in color. The shape of the fruit is cone-shaped, the weight reaches 150 grams, and the wall thickness is 8 mm.
Therefore, the peppers of the variety "Big Papa" are very juicy and tasty. They yield up to 9 kg and tolerate transportation.
One more early ripe grade - the "California miracle" yields the first fruits for the 120th day after disembarkation of seeds. Bushes grow quite high, reach 100 cm. They can be grown under the film, and in open ground.
Fruits have the form of a cube, ribbed walls with 8 millimeters of pulp. You can pick the fruits when their shade turns bright green, after ripening the color changes to red.
The yield of the variety is 3 kg per meter of land. Vegetables are suitable for fresh consumption and canning.
Very fruitful and early ripe grade - "Orange miracle". Peppers ripen on the 110th day after planting. It is better to grow them in the southern regions of Russia, or use temporary shelters, greenhouses.
Fruits differ in bright orange skinned, their shape is cubic. The weight of one pepper can reach 250 grams. Vegetables are not only large, but also very juicy, because their wall thickness is 10 mm.
Bushes grow tall, reaching 1 meter. The plant is resistant to tobacco mosaic virus and several other diseases. Peppers can be used raw or used for storage, canning.
With proper care from one meter bed you can remove up to 14 kg of vegetables.
One of the most popular varieties, refers to the middle ripening - the first fruits can be collected on the 120th day after planting. Bushes grow small and low - up to 50 cm. The peppers themselves are also small - up to 10 cm in diameter, have a round shape and green color. After ripening, the peel rind becomes bright red.
The mass of one fruit is 50-80 grams, the flesh is quite juicy, the wall thickness is 5 mm.
To grow Bulgarian pepper varieties "Gogoshary" can be both in the shelter, and in the garden. The plant is resistant to diseases, has a good yield - up to 5 kg of vegetables come out from every meter of land.
It is better to grow the variety in areas protected from wind - it has spreading bushes, reaching a height of 80 cm. The plant is resistant to diseases typical of peppers, and yields high yields - up to 5 kg.
To grow a variety of pepper is better in the open field, but it is possible under temporary shelters.
Peppers grow quite large, their weight is about 250 grams. The color of the peel is yellow, the shape is prism-like, the surface is glossy.
The thickness of the walls of the fruit is 6 mm - the peppers are very juicy and have a sweetish taste, a special aroma. Fruits contain a lot of vitamin C and other beneficial microelements, so they are best eaten raw. But you can and canned, and salt, and stew.
The first vegetables will appear in the garden not earlier than the 110th day after sowing seeds. Mature peppers tolerate transportation and can be stored for a long time.
"Gift of Moldova"
One of the most favorite varieties of Bulgarian pepper, most often used by local summer residents and gardeners.
They love this pepper for its excellent taste and high yield. Culture suitable for cultivation in the greenhouse and in the open field. She is able to adapt to the climatic conditions of the region, but bears fruit best in the south.
The first fruits appear only on the 130th day after disembarkation, but they ripen together. This allows you to use a variety for industrial cultivation, when vegetables are removed not by hand, but by special equipment.
Pepper bushes are low - only 45 cm, quite sprawling. The peppers themselves are small - weighing up to 90 grams, but have a thick flesh and a pleasant taste.
It is possible to grow the “Gift of Moldova” not only in the fields, but also in greenhouses and garden beds.
What types and varieties to plant in the spring of 2019
On the example of the varieties of peppers with a photo and description, it is shown how these cultures differ and what advantages they have. Knowing the strengths and weaknesses, it is easy to choose the most appropriate varieties of pepper for a particular case.
It is important to remember that the vegetable must be not only beautiful and fruitful, but also tasty. It has a lot of vitamins and trace elements necessary for the body, pepper needs to be eaten both raw and cooked.