Gardeners who have planted cherries in their gardens usually rely on a bountiful and tasty harvest for many years. Moreover, it is a shame when the sweet cherry is cracking, which seems to be taken care of according to all the rules of agronomic science. This problem is typical both for the fruits of the cherry, and for its bark, twigs and especially the trunk in its various parts, regardless of the region where the fruit is grown.
Why the trunk cracks, as well as the fruits of cherries, how to cope with these misfortunes and what preventive work is worth doing - you can learn about all this from the article.
Why the sweet cherry bursts
The main reason why cherry is cracking is an excess of moisture in both the soil and in the air. In general, all stone-seed crops hardly tolerate overmoistening of the soil, and as for the sweet cherry, it shows a special sensitivity to it. That is why cherries are not recommended to be planted in lowlands, where water accumulates, or where the groundwater is high.
In years with a large amount of precipitation, the harvest may be minimal, and if the root system is seriously soaked up, the cherry trees may even die in the coming winter.
The cracking of the bark of the cherry trees, along with the overmoistening, can also cause large temperature differences in winter and especially in early spring. These are the so-called sunburns and freezers. A combination of these factors for one year can be especially dangerous.
When small individual cracks appear, the cherry tree itself will take up their treatment and in favorable conditions during the summer period will be able to cope with the tightening of wounds. Another thing is if the cracks are large and in unfavorable places (in the forks of branches and trunks), especially if they get into various kinds of pathogens. In these cases, the trees have little chance of survival.
Sweet bark problems and diseases and their treatment
Cracks in the bark on the stem or branches of cherry are initially only an aesthetic problem. But if you leave it without proper attention, the consequences may be more than serious.
When the bark and stem of the sweet cherry crack, infectious diseases can develop:
- bacterial cancer;
- false fungus tinder;
- sulfur-yellow tinder.
Non-infectious is gamma treatment.
When an infection gets into the crack of a cherry tree, diseases of the first group develop, which is very difficult or almost impossible to fight. Therefore, prevention and timely treatment of wounds in cherry trees is very important.
When gumming on the trunks and branches of cherries in various places stands out sticky translucent mass - gum, which solidifies in the form of glassy drops.Attention! Sweet cherry has a special predisposition to this disease, since the development of the stem in its thickness is more pronounced than, for example, in cherry or plum.
Symptoms of the disease are especially active:
- on acidic or waterlogged soils;
- after the use of high doses of fertilizers, especially nitrogen;
- when weak cherries are weakened by infectious diseases such as monoliosis, klyasterosporiosis;
- after damage to the bark of cherries as a result of frost cracks or sunburn.
In fact, acupuncture is the reaction of the tree to any damage or weakening.
Why bark and trunk are cracked on a sweet cherry
The origin of all diseases of the bark and stem of the cherry is the appearance of cracks, so first of all it is necessary to deal in detail with the causes leading to this phenomenon.
- As mentioned earlier, one of the main reasons why the bark of the cherry is cracking is excessive soil moisture. As a result, the young bark begins to grow rapidly, and the old, not so elastic, cannot withstand such pressure and cracks.
- No less common cause is exposure to contrasting temperatures. It is especially dangerous for cherry trees in early spring, when the sun begins to warm very intensely. Scientists measured the temperature on the southern sunny side of a tree trunk in February - March: it reached 15 ... 20 ° C. At the same time, the temperature of the ambient air in the shade was -15 ... -18 ° C. The sap of trees in the sun under the influence of heat is liquefied, and then freezes - as a result, cracks appear on the bark.
- No less dangerous and sunburn, which have the form of brown or reddish spots on the branches or trunks of cherries. In these places under the influence of sunlight begins the process of photosynthesis, although not as active as in the leaves. But substances formed as a result of its activities have nowhere to go: in winter, there are no growth points, and energy can be spent on the development of various infections that are in a dormant state in a tree.
- Another reason for the emergence of gum disease and, as a result, the formation of cracks in the cherry are errors made when pruning a tree (untimely or excessive pruning).
- Improper planting of cherries, especially the excessive deepening of its root collar, can also lead to the fact that the bark of the tree is cracking.
- In addition, all stone trees, and in particular cherries, are prone to cracks in the trunk due to the growth of stem cells.
Therefore, it is very important not to overdo the introduction of nitrogen-containing mineral and organic fertilizers, which affect the growth and development of plants.
What to do if the crust on the cherry is burst
First, it is necessary to optimize the irrigation regime, try not to re-moisten the soil in which the sweet cherry grows.
Unfortunately, it is impossible for a person to fight with constant torrential rains. Therefore, the question arises: what to do when the stem of the cherry has already burst.
- No matter what size the damage to the bark on the trunk, it must be cleaned with a sharp tool to a living tissue and slightly dried.
- After, treat with any 1-3% solution containing blue vitriol (Xom, Oxy, Bordeaux mixture). To do this, dilute 100-300 ml of solution in 10 l of water. It is necessary to spray so that the mixture does not flow from the bark, and settled in the crack.
Well, if the edges of the wound on the bark have a light shade: this means that damage to the trunk is caused by purely physiological reasons and the infection has not yet been recorded.
If the edges of the bark of a brown color or to clean the wound is completely impossible (for example, because of its inconvenient location), then more intensive treatment will be required. In this case, you can use a solution of nitrophene. This is a fairly serious fungicidal drug that can destroy all the contagion on dead wood, while it practically does not penetrate into living tissue. But in working with him should observe special precautions.
After fungicide treatment, the crack in the wood should be closed with one of the suitable putties. The easiest way is to use garden water. But not any pang contributes to good healing of wounds in a tree. Before using (buying) you need to examine the composition of this tool.
Attention! It is undesirable to use garden pitch, which includes such components as gasoline, kerosene or other refined products.
Good effect on the cracks in the trees of sweet cherry compositions based on natural beeswax, resin conifers, vegetable oils, protective phytoncids.
Garden var is easy to prepare and do it yourself.
Need to cook:
- 2 parts spruce or pine resin;
- 1.5 parts of flaxseed oil;
- 1 part turpentine;
- 1 part beeswax.
Melt all ingredients in a water bath and mix well.
If, as a result of the impact of a garden warrior, a crack in the cherry tree still does not grow for a long time, you can try to periodically lubricate the wound with putty from greasy clay and horse or cow manure.
Effective for wound healing is a natural recipe according to which trees were treated several centuries ago:
- manure - 16 parts;
- chalk or dry lime - 8 parts;
- wood ash - 8 parts;
- river sand - 1 part.
The lack of putties is that they are quickly washed away by rains. But on the other hand, they do not interfere with the natural overgrowing of wounds and provide a protective and healing effect.Comment! Cracks in the bark of cherries, which secrete gum, are recommended to be carefully rubbed with fresh sorrel leaves several times with an interval of 10 minutes after disinfection with copper sulfate.
How to deal with cracks on the stem of sweet cherry: prevention
- The most common causes of cracks on the stem of cherry are weather conditions: frost and heavy rainfall. Therefore, one of the main preventive means of control is the selection and planting of sweet cherry varieties suitable for the climatic conditions of the area.
- Also, when planting a tree, it is necessary to choose an elevated place with a deep level of groundwater standing.
- Planting should be carried out by all the rules, in any case without deepening the root of the neck or the place of vaccination of sweet cherry seedlings. It is better if they rise several centimeters above the ground.
- The soil for planting should not be too acidic (pH in the range 5.5-6.5), otherwise it is necessary to add lime or at least wood ash.
- Do not allow excessive moisture, especially if the weather is rainy. It is best to grow sweet cherries using drip irrigation.
- Regular coloring of garden whitewashing of trunks and lower branches during the autumn period and repeating the procedure in early spring if necessary helps with frostbones and sunburn. You can also protect the trunks of trees, tying them with spruce branches, straw or spunbond.
Tip! In order to protect the cherry trees from spring frosts, in the evening they are plentifully watered (about 5 buckets per tree) and sprayed on the crown with water. A thin ice crust is formed on the twigs, which is able to protect them from freezing and cracking of the bark.
- As a preventive measure for the appearance of cracks in the sweet cherry, the trunk is treated annually with an ash-soap solution. In 10 liters of hot water, 2-3 kg of ash and 50 g of soap are dissolved, and then with a rag soaked in a solution, the branches and the trunk are abundantly greased. This procedure can be carried out even twice a year: in the spring and in the autumn, because it not only disinfects the bark, but is also a good feeding.
Cherry leaves crust: causes and treatment
There may be several reasons for the detachment of sweet bark from the stem.
- A large temperature difference in early spring, when the crust swells and expands on a sunny day, and shrinks on a frosty night, but can no longer stand in its place. There is a detachment of the bark from the tree trunk. Most often, this process can be observed from the south and south-west sides. As a preventive measure and treatment, it is necessary to protect the trunks in the fall with whitewashing or mechanically, tying them with covering material or lapnik.
- Bacterial cancer bone cancer - a disease that is almost not treatable. In this case, the crust can die off from any part of the world.
If the cracks have already appeared, then furrowing will be a wonderful means against their increase. This method can also be used for prophylaxis from the 4th to 5th year of sweet cherry life. The best period for the procedure is April - May.
Using a sharp and clean knife, carefully cut a furrow about 15 cm long on the bark. Then, making a gap of a few centimeters, cut the next furrow; so you can do the entire length of the trunk.
It is important that the furrow depth be no more than 3 mm, the knife should cut through not the wood, but only the bark.
Retreating 7-9 cm, you can cut through the next furrow.
Cambium begins to grow rapidly in the area of the furrows - the wounds heal quickly, and at the same time the excess stress of the cortex is removed. Cracks, if they appeared, also quickly tightened. As a result, the thickness of the trunks of trees increases rapidly, they grow better and bear more fruit.
Peeling bark on a cherry tree: causes and methods of treatment
Peeling bark on the sweet cherry and reducing the number of fruits suggests that the tree lacks three trace elements that are responsible for the plasticity of the cells:
Help sweet cherry can be feeding on the sheet. Such spraying with the above preparations should be carried out immediately after flowering and a second time after harvesting.
In addition, the bark should be slightly peeled and chalked thoroughly.
Why do the fruits of the cherry tree crack on the tree
The main causes of cracking fruits on the sweet cherry are the lack or excess of moisture.
Sweet cherry fruits crack when moisture accumulates on the surface of their skin in unlimited quantities. This may be due to adverse weather conditions and too abundant watering.
Another reason for the cracking of the fruits of cherries is oversaturation with moisture of the roots of the tree. Moreover, it can happen during prolonged rains - in this case, the upper part of the berries most often suffers. And if the irrigation was uneven or after a long drought, heavy rain fell, the berries appear mainly on the sides.
With a tree getting abundant moisture, the berry begins to grow rapidly in size, and the skin does not keep up with it and breaks. Berries can be eaten, you can make juices and compotes out of them, but the cherry is no longer suitable for sale.
How to prevent cracking fruits of sweet cherry
To prevent the occurrence of cracks in the fruits of sweet cherry trees, it is necessary to provide trees with uniform moisture. The easiest way to do this is with a drip irrigation device.
You can also use the following recommendations:
- In spring, be careful with watering and start abundant hydration only from May, when leaf mass is growing, but only in dry weather.
- Especially important regular moisturizing for cherries with the beginning of flowering and after, during the growth of fruits. When the berries begin to ripen, watering can be slightly reduced.
- In the second half of summer, the amount of moisture is not so significant, but it is important to carry out abundant watering of the cherry trees before winter when the first autumn frosts occur.
- Choosing and fitting the right sort of sweet cherry will also help to deal with this problem.
- Fruits of such varieties as Summit, Lapens, Yaroslavna, Valeria, have more dense flesh, thick skin and are not so susceptible to cracking.
What are the drugs for cracking cherries
There are a number of drugs, the use of which can reduce the cracking of cherry berries. They cover the fruit with a transparent film that improves skin elasticity and prevents moisture loss.
The simplest remedy is spraying the trees with calcium chloride solution. Its disadvantage lies only in the fact that the fruit before use or sale must be washed with water to remove the salt deposits.
The water catchment (coniferous resin) has an exclusively natural origin.
With a protective purpose, the following drugs are used:
- Calbit C;
Many of these tools not only protect the fruits of cherries from cracking, but also reduce the time of ripening, and increase the size of the fruits and their sugar content.
Of course, the cherry is cracking as a result of circumstances beyond the control of the person, but following some simple rules for nursing can help, if not completely cope with the situation, it can make life easier for trees and gardeners.
To the aid can come a variety of drugs, some of which can be done independently.