Growing onions for a feather in a greenhouse in winter can be used as an idea for business or for your own needs. To obtain a good harvest, the necessary conditions are provided, equipment and planting material is purchased.
Onion growing conditions in the greenhouse
To ensure active growth of onions can be subject to a number of conditions:
- daytime temperature - from +18 to + 20 ° С;
- night time temperature - from +12 to + 15 ° С;
- daylight duration - 12 hours;
- regular watering;
- frequent airing.
To maintain the necessary conditions, you should purchase certain equipment for the greenhouse. Its design is made of wooden or metal frame.
A more affordable option is a wooden frame, but before installing its surface must be processed to prevent deformation. The metal frame is coated with an anti-corrosion primer or painted.
Glass, film or polycarbonate is used as a coating. It is considered more reliable polycarbonate, able to maintain the required temperature.
The most convenient way to grow onions in special racks. They can be placed in several rows and thereby increase the yield.
The width of the racks should be up to 35 cm. The soil heats up faster in them, which shortens the period of feather germination. It is much more convenient to work with racks, since there is no need to bend down to the beds with plantings.
Installation of fixtures
It is possible to provide the necessary level of lighting with the help of vertical lamps. It is best to use fluorescent lamps, which are designed specifically for lighting plants. Their power is 15-58 watts.
It is allowed to use LED lamps or tapes. If lamps of 20-25 W are used, they are placed every 1.2 m.Tip! If stacked racks are used, then each level requires a separate backlight.
It is best to put a greenhouse on a sunny plot to save on lighting. However, additional lighting is indispensable due to the short daylight in winter.
Watering and heating
A prerequisite for deciding how to grow onions is timely watering of the plantings. To do this, apply warm water, which is settled in barrels.Tip! Provide the required level of moisture can be due to the drip irrigation system.
To maintain the required temperature inside the greenhouse, heating devices are used. One option is to equip the premises with electric or gas boilers. Their pipes are placed evenly around the perimeter of the greenhouse.
You can also install in the greenhouse stove heating or electric heaters. Airing is provided by the vents. It is best to open them during thaws.
Choosing a bow for planting
For the cultivation of green onions in the greenhouse in winter, choose the following varieties of onions:
- Onion. It is planted in greenhouses since March, and choose frost-resistant varieties. For planting, boxes of 40x60 cm are prepared. If necessary, they can be quickly moved to a new location.
- Onion slizun. Differs in high tastes and frost resistance. The plant is demanding to the level of moisture, so you need to constantly monitor the soil moisture.
- Onion-batun. This is one of the most unpretentious types of onions, capable of germinating at any length of daylight. In the greenhouse it is grown at any time of the year, and the distillation time is 2-4 weeks. After a month, his feathers become hard and bitter.
- Shallot. This crop is particularly demanding on moisture and fertilizer fertilization. It is not recommended to grow it several times in succession on the same soil.
- Bow tiered. The name of the plant was due to the formation of onions at the ends of the feathers, which give new greens. Tiered onions have no rest period and germinate at any time of the year. This species is especially appreciated for its frost resistance and early ripening.
- Leek. This type of onion is grown from seed. The plant does not form a large bulb. For planting onions in the greenhouse choose the varieties of early ripening, which are considered the most fruitful.
Preparation of planting material
How to grow onions depends largely on its variety. It is most convenient to plant the bulbs, because this method requires a minimum of effort. When using seeds, the period required for cultivation is increased. Seedlings method involves the transfer of seedlings obtained at home in the greenhouse.
This method is not in demand because it takes a lot of time. For planting take young seeds, whose age is less than 2 years.
You can pre-evaluate the germination of seeds. First, select 20 seeds, which are wrapped in a damp cloth. If it has risen more than 80%, then this material can be used for landing in the ground.Tip! Before planting, the seeds are dipped in water at room temperature for 20 hours. It needs to be changed three times.
Then the seeds need to be treated with a solution of manganese concentration of 1%. Planting material is placed in the prepared solution for 45 minutes.
Improve germination helps solution "Epin." For 100 ml of water add 2 drops of the drug, then immerse the seeds in the solution for 18 hours. The ambient temperature should remain at 25-30 ° C.
After processing, planting seeds in the greenhouse. For this purpose, grooves are made in the depth of 1-1.5 cm.
Rasadny method grown leeks. The first shoots are obtained at home. Seeds are planted in containers, watered and covered with foil. You can plant seeds for seedlings in peat pots.Tip! Over the next week, it is necessary to ensure a certain temperature regime: about + 16 ° C during the day and + 13 ° C at night.
After the appearance of germs capacity is moved to the window sill. For active growth, onions require an increased daily temperature: + 17 ... + 21 ° C. Every two weeks is carried out feeding onions compost. The leaves of the seedlings need to be cut so that no more than 10 cm of length is left.
When the onion grows up, it is thinned and transferred to a permanent place in the greenhouse. Planting is carried out when sprouts reach a length of 15 cm.
The most effective method is to plant the bulbs directly into the greenhouse ground. First you need to select the planting material. For planting fit small bulbs.
To increase the yield of onions can be due to the heating of planting material. During the day it is maintained at a temperature of + 40 ° C.
Then, with a pair of garden shears, each bulb must be cut off the neck. So the plant will gain access to oxygen and accelerate the growth of feathers.
Onions prefer sandy soil, which is fertilized with humus and peat. Before planting, it is recommended to dig up the soil.
Be sure to make fertilizer. Their number per square meter is:
- compost - 1 bucket;
- sodium chloride - 15 g;
- superphosphate - 30 g
If garden soil is taken, then crop rotation should be taken into account. For onions, the best predecessors are eggplants, beets, tomatoes, carrots.Important! Soil can be used for forcing the bow 3-4 times.
Instead of soil, you can use fine sawdust for planting onions. They are light, keep moisture well and do not require replacement.
A layer of sawdust is poured on the racks or beds, and ash and ammonium nitrate are poured from above. Due to ash, wood material is deoxidized, while saltpeter saturates the bulbs with nitrogen. In this case, additional feeding is not made.
You can plant a bow on a feather in a greenhouse at any time from October to April. Subject to the necessary conditions of green feathers can be collected in 20-30 days. The following batches are planted in 10-14 days, which will ensure continuous harvesting.
There are several ways to plant onions in a greenhouse or greenhouse. For landing in the soil choose the pavement or belt method. You can choose the method of hydroponics and get a good harvest without the use of land.
In the bridge mode, the bulbs are planted close to each other so that there is no space left. This method allows you to significantly save time and effort, because there is no need to dig the beds, mulch the soil and weed.Important! The bulbs are slightly pressed into the soil, this is enough for their further germination.
In a bridging way, it is convenient to plant bulbs in boxes or on racks. Pre-need to fertilize the soil. Each square meter of such beds requires about 10 kg of planting material.
When the ribbon method of planting onions in the winter in the greenhouse is placed in the prepared furrows. Between the bulbs leave up to 3 cm, and between the rows - 20 cm.
By the tape method, it is possible to plant not only the bulbs, but also the seeds. When using seed material shoots must be thinned.
For growing onions in hydroponics, you need to purchase special installation. These include containers that are filled with water, a lid with openings for onions, and a compressor with a spray.
You can make this installation yourself. The optimal size of the tank for growing onions is 40x80 cm. The height of such a container is 20 cm.
During root germination, the water temperature is maintained at 20 ° C. To stimulate the growth of the pen, the temperature is raised to 25 ° C. Provide the necessary performance can be due to the heater for the aquarium.Important! Hydroponics allows you to get onion feathers in the winter in a greenhouse after 2 weeks.
The lid should fit snugly against the tank, which will prevent light from entering the onion root system. Sparging with the help of a compressor is carried out for 6-12 hours.
Growing on mats
Another option is to grow onions in a greenhouse on special mats that are impregnated with fertilizer. The bulbs are placed close to each other.
First, mats with planted onions are left in a cool dark place. In the greenhouse, you can cover them with a cloth. After 10 days, when the roots germinate, the plants provide the necessary indicators of temperature and light. Periodically, the mats are watered with fertilizer designed for hydroponics.
One of the components of the process, how to grow green onions in a greenhouse, is to ensure proper care. These include the following activities:
- Immediately after disembarkation, onions should be poured abundantly. For the formation of the root system, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 20 ° C.
- After two weeks of planting watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This treatment avoids the spread of mold, disease and pests.
- The next day you need to remove dry, rotten and weak bulbs, unable to give a good harvest. The temperature in the greenhouse must be increased to 23 ° C.
- Periodically the premises of the greenhouse air without creating drafts.
- Hothouse onions watered every week with warm water.
In the process of forcing the onions do not require additional feeding, since all the necessary fertilizers have already been applied to the soil. Additional fertilization is necessary in cases where pale and thin feathers appear.Tip! Onions are fed by spraying it with a solution of urea (15 g per 10 liters of water). After feeding planting watered with clean water.
To make the onion grow faster, it is fed every 10 days. The last treatment is made 10 days before the harvest. For these purposes, use fertilizers "Vermistim", "Humisol", etc.
The crop is harvested when the feathers have reached 35 cm. For sale onions are packed in 50 g and wrapped in plastic wrap.
Onions are considered unpretentious culture, which gives green feathers, even in the absence of ideal conditions. In winter, you can grow various types of onions that do not have a dormant period. To maintain the necessary microclimate in the greenhouse equip lighting, irrigation system and heating.
In winter, it is easiest to plant the bulbs, which speeds up the period of formation of feathers. First, planting material is processed to reproach the forcing of onions. Planting is done in prepared soil, sawdust or hydroponic system. Onions are watered regularly and, if necessary, fed.
On the process of growing onions in the greenhouse described in the video: