Peppers are grown seedlings. This makes it possible to get the harvest in time, because the crop has a long growing season. To grow high-quality peppers, you need to properly:
- sow the seeds of pepper in the seedlings;
- grow seedlings;
- prepare and plant the pepper seedlings for permanent residence.
During all these periods, the sown pepper requires a certain care and maintenance of the necessary environmental parameters.
It does not matter what kind of pepper seedlings you will grow. For bitter or sweet, there are identical nuances of agricultural technology. Some gardeners believe that pepper can be easily sown in open ground and grown without seedlings. But in this case, the vegetables will ripen for 20-25 days later, and in adverse weather they may linger longer. Therefore, a more reliable way - seedling.
When to plant pepper seeds for seedlings? Be sure to check the possible date with the lunar calendar and make a simple calculation.
Pepper ripens, on average, in 100-150 days after the appearance of the first shoots. The seedling is ready for planting 60-80 days later, and the seeds will not grow earlier than 2-3 weeks after sowing. From the favorable day of planting the seedlings in the ground we take away all this period and get the day of sowing.Attention! But, according to the experience of gardeners, pepper is well developed, sown from February 20 to March 10.
Sow the pepper on the seedlings can be earlier. But in this case it is necessary to pay more attention to the younger seedlings - to finish illumination longer.
We start preparing for sowing
How to sow seeds on seedlings? To get a good result, you will have to pay attention to each stage of preplant preparation. At the very beginning, you must choose a good variety of pepper for sowing seedlings. It depends on the purpose for which you will grow a healthy vegetable. Some varieties are good for salads and frost, others for salting and pickling, others are great for all purposes. Many people like large-fruited peppers, others are satisfied with the usual variety.
After your choice is made, pay attention to the shelf life. The older the seeds, the less chance of getting quality seedlings of pepper.Tip! Optimal to take seed no older than two years.
Then proceed to the preplant preparation of selected seeds. The fact is that they emerge slowly enough. Many gardeners, in general, do not sow the seeds of pepper without soaking in growth stimulants. It really helps to speed up the time before the appearance of the first shoots and increase their number. To begin, look at the seeds and remove any suspicious with their appearance. Process, selected for planting, antifungal agents. To do this, use the known fungicides - "Fitosporin-M", "Maxim", "Vitaros" or ordinary potassium permanganate. Pepper seeds are placed in a gauze bag, and the preparations are diluted according to the instructions.Attention! If you use potassium permanganate, be sure to wash the seeds.
The next stage of the seeds are stimulated.
Some options for stimulating pepper seeds to seedlings:
- Wrap the seeds in a cloth and dip in hot water (about + 55 ° C). Hold for 15 minutes and move immediately to the refrigerator. Here they will have to lie down for a day. After the procedure, you should immediately carry out the seeding.
- Soak the seeds in a solution of drugs (optional) "Zircon", "Epin-extra" or "Energen". It takes only 4 drops per half glass of water. Silk and Novosil work excellently for these purposes.
Once the pepper seeds are selected and prepared according to all criteria, proceed to the preparation of the soil and packaging.Tip! It is best to plant each seed of pepper in a separate cup or cassette.
By volume will be enough 50 ml or 100 ml capacity. Seedlings sown in one box will have to dive. This will delay the development of pepper for 10-12 days. And with a cup it will be good to transplant a pepper seedling along with a lump of earth. It is necessary to ensure that the root system seedlings have enough space.
Some gardeners believe that the seedlings of peppers should be grown without picking, so as not to injure the plants. Therefore, they sow the seeds to a depth and simply pour the soil into the cups as the seedlings grow. And others, on the contrary, are sure that one cannot do without a pick.
Soil for pepper seedlings. It is prepared until the seeds germinate. The finished mixture is ideal for those who have not prepared the ground since the fall. A little washed sand (the ratio with the ground is 0.5: 3) and the pepper will be "very pleased." Experienced growers prepare the soil mix themselves. Observing the pepper seedlings tells them which components are most needed. Most often, this is:
- humus or rotted compost - 2 parts;
- peat - 2 parts;
- sand (well washed) - 1 part.
The mixture is sieved, well steamed, some disinfect biological products.
How to sow pepper on seedlings? Planting capacity is filled with soil mixture not to the very top. It is necessary to leave a place on the ground and careful watering. To seedlings appear with the shell already discarded from the seed, the soil is moistened before planting.Important! Moisten, but do not pour. The ground should be wet and not like dirt.
The top layer is compacted and laid out the prepared seeds of pepper.
Then sprinkled with a layer of dry earth in 3-4 cm and compacted again. For this purpose, ideal tablespoon. The cups are placed in plastic bags and put in heat. If sowing was done in a box, cover it with a film.
To see the first shoots after 7-10 days, you need to withstand the temperature of the soil not lower than 28 ° C-30 ° C, but not higher than 35 ° C. Otherwise, you can destroy the seeds. Proper planting pepper - the pledge of your grand harvest.
It is convenient to use shelves or racks for placement of planting containers. Some summer residents in the apartment equip mini-greenhouses, which facilitates the care of small peppers. There are many advantages of such a greenhouse:
- quick assembly and disassembly;
- possibility of installation under the shelves of additional lighting;
- transportability (moves to the country at the request of the owner is very easy).
If you have sown several favorite or new varieties, put a sign indicating the names.
So, it will be easier to provide the right care and observe the characteristics of the variety. You can choose the most suitable for further cultivation. Planting pepper seeds is over, now comes the next important stage - the cultivation of healthy and strong seedlings.
Saplings appeared - we continue competent care
As soon as shoots of pepper are noticed, immediately transfer the container to light, but reduce the temperature to 16 ° C -17 ° C. Moderately pour warm water and put the bowls to the light if there is no additional lighting.Important! Make sure that there is no accumulation of water on the pallets.
In this period of development for the seedlings of pepper it is necessary to provide:
- timely careful watering;
- temperature readings;
- sufficient lighting;
Another step that confuses newbies is picking seedlings. Let's start in order.
First, about watering. Summer residents sacredly follow the rule when caring for pepper seedlings - do not overfill! This misstep leads to black leg disease. But, serious drying of the soil is also unacceptable. The first watering is needed after 4-5 days after the appearance of the first shoots. Water is taken warm, around 30 ° C, cooler leads to weakening of the seedlings. It is good to use the settled water and the frequency of irrigation to regulate, given the weather, temperature and soil characteristics. On average, some may have it several times a day, while others may have it only once a week. Watering is carried out in the morning, because the pepper likes more dry air than cucumbers. Spraying done as needed. When airing the room carefully preserve the seedlings of peppers from drafts.
For those summer residents who have never done this - seating seedlings in a separate (or large) container. This technique is necessary for the best formation of the root system of peppers. After planting the seedlings form side and adventitious roots. Time for picking - two true leaves. There are two options:
- with deepening;
- without deepening.
It is necessary to deepen seedlings by no more than 0.5 cm. The whole process can be described as follows:
Liberally pour the soil and wait until moisture is completely absorbed. If the soil is dry, then you can easily injure the delicate roots of pepper seedlings.
Prepare a container for seating. It must be supplied with drainage so that the water soaks the whole soil and does not stagnate.
Fill it with the same mixture, which was prepared for sowing seeds, and pour a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In the middle of the container make a groove, sufficient for the roots of seedlings of pepper.
Take a pick carefully. Care must be taken not to damage the stems and roots of seedlings. Place the roots in the hole, sprinkle with earth and slightly condense. The root neck can be recessed no more than half a centimeter.Important! At the time of landing, make sure that the roots do not bend.
Gently pour the transplanted seedling, holding it with your finger. After completely absorbing water, fill up the ground if it subsides.
New life stage seedlings pepper
The next phase of development of saplings begins, and our task is to provide it with proper care. We put the container on the windowsill and follow:
- Lighting. Direct sunlight is not allowed. They can burn tender stalks and leaves until the seedlings are adapted to sunlight. Shade better by covering the window glass. Do not forget to turn the pots, so that the seedlings of peppers do not lean in one direction.
- Temperature indicators. It is necessary to control not only the temperature of the air, but also the soil. This is an important indicator for pepper seedlings. It should not fall below 15 ° C. Outside air is heated in the afternoon to 25 ° C on a sunny day and up to 22 ° C in cloudy weather. At night, withstand 17 ° C -18 ° C.
- Water mode. For pickled seedlings, one-time irrigation is enough for 5-6 days. The first time it needs to be drunk six days after the procedure. Water is settled for irrigation, its temperature is maintained at least 25 ° C -28 ° C, so as not to stop the growth of seedlings with cold water. Watering is carried out in the morning.
- Nutrition. During the time that will pass before the seedlings of peppers are planted for permanent residence, it is necessary to conduct two feeding of seedlings. The first time is 14 days after seating, the second is still 14 days after the first time. Feed the seedlings of pepper in a liquid form. It is optimal to combine watering and feeding seedlings. Ready-made products that are purchased in the store network are convenient. They are bred according to the instructions. You can make your own composition. The humate solution works well.
- If pepper seedlings develop slowly and the leaves get a light color, take urea (0.5 tsp) and water (3 liters). Dilute and spill. A worthy alternative is the "Ideal" (according to the instructions). When violations with the root system is fed superphosphate or nitrophoska. Enough 1 tablespoon of the component per three-liter bottle of water. Perfect in this case, dry fertilizer used for tomatoes "Signor Tomato".
- Hardening seedlings. We take out to fresh air, gradually adapting them to environmental conditions. The temperature is kept not lower than 16 ° С, protecting from direct sunlight and drafts.
We considered the main stages before planting in the ground. As soon as the first buds appear, the seedlings are ready for planting.
Be sure to prepare the soil, spill the seedlings and planted with the recommended density. It is important to monitor the state of the root system. It is better to plant with a lump of earth from the pot.
We fill the hole in half, pour it, wait for moisture absorption. Now fill the loose soil, mulch and put the planks with the inscription of the name of the variety. Care for some varieties may vary. This will help to comply with all recommendations. Now our peppers are preparing for ripening the crop.
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