An interesting but difficult time is approaching for any keen summer resident and gardener - growing seedlings. Of course, you can buy it on the market, but, firstly, in most cases the market seedlings do not withstand any criticism regarding the quality and survival rate, and secondly, only growing the seedlings yourself, you can try new, unique varieties and adapt them to your individual growing conditions.
Pepper is a well-known heat-loving culture, which in most regions of Russia can be grown only with the help of seedlings. And here a lot of questions arise, especially for novice gardeners, associated primarily with the timing of sowing seeds, with the choice of varieties, with the features of preparing seeds for sowing, etc. After all, planting peppers for seedlings is not an easy task and requires thoughtful attitude to all even small nuances. Only in this case, seedlings of pepper, and subsequently the plants themselves will delight you with their beauty, strength and healthy appearance.
Dates of sowing pepper in 2019
It is important to understand what the timing of sowing pepper depends on, so that in subsequent years it will be possible to independently calculate the time when you can sow pepper on seedlings.
Further, all major factors on which sowing time depends will be considered.
The length of the growing season - that is, the period of time from germination to harvest. Sometimes technological ripeness of fruits is considered - when the peppers are already edible, but have not acquired the final mature color and the seeds are not ripe for sowing.
About two weeks may pass between technological maturity and final maturation. For peppers, this period averages 110-120 days. But this figure can vary greatly depending on the particular variety. There are early-ripening (85-110 days) and late-ripening (120-130 days) varieties of sweet pepper. So if you want to find out when to sow peppers for seedlings, look at the bag of seeds for the length of the growing season and remember (write down) this number.
The age of a seedling before its landing in the ground is a rather important characteristic, although it often depends heavily on the growing conditions. Typically, pepper seedlings are planted in the ground after the formation of the first flower in the first fork. For early varieties of pepper, this occurs at the age of 50-65 days from the emergence of shoots, for the later ones - at the age of 65-85 days.Comment! These terms are important, because it is at this moment that the plants most easily tolerate the transplant, are able to settle down faster and get less sick.
The approximate time of seedling of pepper - above all, depends on further growing conditions. Where you grow pepper in the summer - in a greenhouse, in a greenhouse or in the open field - determines in many ways the timing of planting pepper for seedlings. And this period, unfortunately, is the most difficult to predict, because it depends the most on weather conditions. The greatest dependence on the weather is obtained when planting peppers in open ground. And in the case of cultivation in greenhouses, it depends on the gardener himself whether it is possible to use additional heating or shelter in case of a sudden cold snap. A little later in the final table will be given approximate dates for all major regions of Russia.
The period of seed germination is a rather important characteristic, which for some reason is often not taken into account.
And at the same time pepper seeds germinate on average 10-15 days, and they can "sit" in the ground and up to 25 days. The good news, though, is that there are many ways to speed seed germination. Therefore, if for some reason you are late in planting pepper for seedlings in 2019, you can always catch up to 10-18 days with the help of presowing treatment of seeds.
The term for obtaining a possible crop depends primarily on the particular variety. This characteristic is more important for advanced gardeners, but may be interesting for beginners. It is clear that in the case of peppers, no matter how hard we try, these periods can begin somewhere from mid-June (for the southern regions when grown in greenhouses) and to late autumn. Nevertheless, if the planting of pepper seeds for seedlings will take place in several stages, then using different varieties, from top to late varieties, you can actually extend the fruiting period to several months. Here you can take into account the demands of plants to heat.
The fact is that in recent years many relatively cold-resistant varieties of pepper have been obtained by breeders. They can try to land under temporary shelter for 5-10-15 days earlier than their more thermophilic counterparts. You should not count on it much, but as an experiment, why not?Tip! Try to choose varieties of sweet pepper for planting in your region.
The climatic conditions of a particular region are the most important determining factor in answering the question: "When should the pepper be planted on seedlings?" Below is a table, where for the main regions of Russia are the approximate dates of planting pepper in greenhouse conditions and in open ground, as well as the time of the first possible frosts.
Landing in the greenhouse
Landing in open ground
Northern regions (St. Petersburg, Syktyvkar)
Middle latitudes (Moscow, Kazan, Chelyabinsk)
Middle latitudes (Voronezh, Saratov, Orenburg)
Ural (Perm, Yekaterinburg)
Siberia (Omsk, Novosibirsk)
South (Rostov, Krasnodar, Crimea)
These dates are very approximate and averaged, but nevertheless allow us to answer quite definitely the question when to plant peppers for seedlings in 2019.
So, first choose the date of planting seedlings based on the data in the table and your growing conditions (greenhouse, open ground). From it you subtract the age of the seedlings before its landing in the ground, it is directly related to the length of the growing season, which is indicated on the teabags. (Usually accounts for 55-60% of the length of the growing season). From the received date you still deduct the period of seed germination and as a result you get approximate terms of sowing.
If we perform all the above operations, for example, for the central regions (Moscow, Ufa, etc.) and open ground, we obtain the following calculations:
- For early ripening varieties - in 2019, it is possible to sow pepper for seedlings from March 16 to April 16.
- For late-ripening varieties - from February 25 to March 22.
As you can see, even in April, it is not too late to plant peppers for subsequent cultivation in the open field.
These calculations are basic and can be adjusted in one direction or another, depending on the varietal characteristics of the pepper or the timing of the possible yield. And, of course, thinking about when to plant seedlings of pepper, it is impossible not to take into account the lunar calendar.
Attention! It is better to sow later than before, because with an abundance of heat and light in late spring, the plants that were planted later will catch up and overtake their early sown brethren.
Presowing seed treatment
There are several techniques that allow not only to speed up the germination of seeds, which is especially important for such a tuggingly similar culture as sweet pepper, but also to charge future seedlings with energy to withstand many diseases and possible adverse conditions.
- Soak for 10 minutes in a 3% solution of salt for the selection of obviously unsatisfactory seeds (those that will float on the surface). Do not forget to thoroughly rinse the remaining seeds in running water from salt.
- Soaking the seeds in a solution of phytosporin or glyocladin will allow the disinfection of seeds, even more reliable than using traditional potassium permanganate.
- If there is a suspicion that the pepper seeds are not very fresh, but the variety is very valuable, then there is an operation that increases the percentage of seed germination at times. It is called bubbling. Seeds are lowered into a jar of warm water, and the end of the hose from the aquarium compressor is fixed at the bottom. When the compressor is turned on, the water begins to actively saturate with oxygen. The processing time of pepper seeds is about 12 hours.
- Soaking seeds in a solution of stimulants, such as Epin-Extra, Zircon, Succinic acid, HB-101, will allow grown-up seedlings to withstand adverse environmental factors: frost, dryness, low light.
Basic rules for sowing pepper
In preparation for sowing, first of all, it should be borne in mind that the pepper does not like transplants. Therefore, planting peppers for seedlings should, if possible, be carried out immediately in separate containers. Recently, peat tablets are very popular, and it is no coincidence that they replace both the planting tanks and the prepared soil immediately. In addition, they have everything that is necessary for the pepper for initial growth. Ordinary cups, ready-made cassettes, and home-made containers can be used.Important! Do not use transparent containers for planting. Roots for good development need darkness.
The next important feature is a decrease in temperature by several degrees immediately after the appearance of the first shoots. This technique will allow the seedlings not to stretch out and build up a good root system. Thus, if you sowed pepper seeds at a temperature of + 25 ° + 30 ° С, then after the emergence of seedlings the seedlings should be placed in a place with a temperature of + 18 ° + 20 ° С.
If the seedlings of pepper are grown in March, and even more so in February, then it must be finished in more detail so that the total duration of the daylight hours is about 10-12 hours.
If the seedlings of peppers are grown on window sills, pay attention to their temperature. Usually they are 5-10 degrees colder than the environment. Peppers do not like cold soil, so place the seedlings additionally on the board, a piece of foam or any insulation.
After the appearance of the first two true leaves, pepper seedlings must be transferred to large containers. You can take a small, about 500 ml. But you need to remember that the more space you can provide to the root system during the period of growing seedlings, the better the plants will develop, the stronger and healthier they will be, the faster they will bloom and begin to bear fruit. Therefore, it is advisable to load peppers into large containers so that, ideally, before planting in the ground, the seedlings grow in two-liter pots.
It is necessary to water the seedlings of pepper moderately, as the topsoil dries. It is advisable to feed several times from the first transshipment to the landing in the ground. It is advisable to use complex fertilizers with a balanced NPK content and the most complete set of trace elements.
Following the above tips, you will definitely be able to grow strong and healthy seedlings of pepper, which can later please you with tasty, large and beautiful fruits.