The term "tinder", depending on the context, can mean a bee colony, a single bee, and even an unfertilized queen bee. But these concepts are closely related to each other. A family becomes a tinder if a tinder bee performs the role of a queen in it. A bee can appear in the family only in case of loss of a full-fledged female.
Who are the tinder
If the queen died in the colony, the bees after some time begin to feed each other's royal jelly. Since the milk contains hormones that stimulate egg-laying, some of the bee-eating "unsuitable" bees are reborn.
A common bee is an underdeveloped female incapable of egg-laying. But in the bee, stimulated by royal jelly, ovipositories begin to develop. The number of ovipositories can reach 12.
Such a female starts laying eggs. But since she does not have either a seminal receptacle or spermatozoa, it can only lay eggs with a haploid set of chromosomes. That is to breed drones. From the point of view of the collection of stocks and the continued survival of the family drones are useless. The existing population of working individuals for all will not be able to work and in winter the colony will die of starvation.
A family in which there is no queen, but there is a reborn living individual, is also called a tinder for short. And the difference in concepts depends on the context.Attention! Sometimes the family becomes a tinder even with a full-fledged female.
But this means that the queen is too old and unable to fully sow eggs. In any case, the presence of only a drone seeding is an excuse to guard and carefully look at the colony.
Because of the long absence of a real queen, a normal bee can assume its role, which for some time fed on royal jelly and began to lay unfertilized eggs. Although working individuals may begin to treat such a tinder bee as a real queen, only drones can emerge from unfertilized eggs.
Since the drones require a lot of space in the cells, the bees close the honeycomb with convex lids. The set of cells closed by such caps is called "humpback sowing." The appearance of humpback seeding in the hive is a signal that the family is turning into a tinder.
The beekeeper, when such a seeding occurs, should be carefully examined by the swarm. If the real female is not found, urgent measures should be taken to save the colony.
Attention! A weak family is better to combine with the average.
If the tinder bees appeared in the presence of a real uterus, this means that the queen needs to be changed: she is too old. Many beekeepers prefer to change females every year or two to prevent the emergence of drone colonies.
Since the tinder is a reborn working individual, it has no differences from other bees. Accordingly, it is impossible to distinguish by eye the tinder bee from the rest of the colony members. The tinder differs from worker bees only in their ability to lay eggs.
Can bees fly
Bees do not have individuals incapable of flying. Even a fertilized queen, if necessary, can rise with a swarm and fly to another place. But it happens in some exceptional cases and usually with wild bees. The family is simply saved from danger.
In a normal situation, the queen does not need to fly anywhere, and it may appear that she is unable to rise into the air. Capable of. For the tinder bee, which in fact is a working individual, flying does not pose any difficulties at all. She has problems with orientation in space. She does not consider it necessary to fly, everything she needs is “brought to the house”.
The tinder uterus is an ordinary queen who for some reason cannot lay fertilized eggs. Sometimes the female is simply not capable of flying due to deformity. Some queens emerge from pupae with underdeveloped wings; others may damage them by accident. Contrary to the sometimes common opinion, the “native” drones will not fertilize their queen. For mating, the queen needs a flight. It always copulates in the air. Or the female simply did not meet the male. The uterus may remain unfertilized if the weather has been unsuitable for flying for a long time.
From the eggs of unfertilized females only drones come out. Fix this queen is impossible. It is removed immediately when it detects an excessively large number of drones in the colony and is placed in the family with a normal uterus or a one-day sowing from another hive. In the latter case, the bees themselves will grow a new queen.
Family tinder - a colony for a long time without a uterus. These bees do not have fresh sowing of eggs, from which they could bring themselves a new queen. Due to the lack of larvae, which must be supplied with milk, the bees begin to feed each other. As a result, some individuals develop reproductive functions, and they begin to sow eggs.
The tinder bees lay eggs in ordinary bee cells, but only drones are bred from such eggs. Males have little space in the bee cell, and the bees seal the cells with convex lids.Attention! The appearance of humpback seeding on the honeycomb is a sure sign of the tinder family.
Such a family can still be tried to fix, unlike the womb uterus. But it will be necessary to remove the tinder bee from the family, if it is there.
The main reason for the appearance of tinder in most cases - the death of the uterus. The queen may die from the disease. Often, due to the mistakes of beekeepers, when the fight against the drones was too zealous and the bees lost their protection against natural enemies.
Also, with a small number of drones in their own apiary and the absence of nearby other bee colonies, the uterus can return from unfertilized fly-by. In this case, it begins to lay unfertilized eggs.
Two queens in the hive are also almost certain death of the colony in winter, since the bees do not have enough strength to keep warm when two tangles are formed instead of one.
The tinder families also appear when the queen is too old and sows too few fertilized eggs. The family could start swarming. Moreover, such a colony enters the tinder stage faster than any other. This is explained by the fact that young bees still have nothing to do, and they begin to feed each other with milk.
What is fraught with their appearance
With the emergence of tinder of any kind, the consequences are the same: the death of the colony. This is provided that the beekeeper will not take any measures. When caring for bees, such a problem is always solved. Sometimes it's easy, sometimes you have to tinker. And first you need to find a tinder bee in the colony.
If you do not take action as quickly as possible, changes in the colony will become irreversible. The bees will not accept another queen and will kill her. Such a family can no longer be joined to another, since they will not be able to feed anyone other than drones. It is easier not to allow the appearance of a tinder family than to correct it later. But the cases are different.
How to detect
The trumpeter family is detected by "humpback sowing". Further understand why this happened. The emergence of such a family may be a consequence of the presence of an unfertilized uterus. The queen stands out by appearance, and it is easy to find her.
If there is no queen in the tinder family and the bees perform its functions, you will have to tinker with the definition of “pests”. You need to watch the bees: several individuals are always head to the "womb". There is an easier way to get rid of the tinder bee without figuring out who it is. Moreover, there may be several such bees. Swarm is collected, carried away and poured on the ground. Working individuals will return to the hive, and trot bees will get lost.
How to fix tinder: methods and tips
The easiest way to prevent the emergence of families, tinder than to fix them. For the prevention of the emergence of panties family control. If necessary, the queens are replaced by a "quiet shift."
If the colony has lost the queen, but there is a brood brood, you need to follow the release of a new female on the 16th day after sowing eggs. On the 10th day after the birth of the new queen, it is checked whether she is fertilized and is present in the hive at all.
In bezmatochnye families put frames from other hives with a one-day sowing. As long as the working individuals are busy with larvae, they will not feed each other, which means that they will not create tinder bees and the family will remain healthy.
With the same purpose to prevent mutual feeding with milk, an old uterus is placed in a cell or already dead in a bezmochny hive. The smell of the queen also prevents the bees from feeding each other.
Most often, the appearance of the tinder at the apiary is a consequence of the carelessness, inexperience, or carelessness of the beekeeper. But this happens and you have to correct the situation. The method of correction depends on the time of year, the presence of "spare" queens and the state of the bee swarm.
How to fix a shaky bee colony in spring
The easiest way to solve the problem is spring. In the spring there are no tinder bees. If the colony only drone brood, then the fault of the queen. Unlike bees, it sows eggs correctly: one by one and in the center of the cell. Exception: maimed female. Such a queen can sow eggs from the edge. But only drones come out of unfertilized eggs, and it is necessary to correct the situation, while the family is actually still normal and has not turned into a tinder.
The defective uterus is removed and a new one is placed in its place. In the absence of a "spare" queen, an orphaned colony is united with another, weak family, and later on layings.
Breeding new females in spring is considered inexpedient, since it is still cold and there are not enough drones. But it all depends on the region. In the south of the queens can be derived in late spring.
How to fix tinder in summer
Similarly, a broken colony is rectified in the summer. The old queen is destroyed and instead they get a full one. A weak family is combined with another.Attention! Weak consider a family capable of processing only 4 frames.
Such a colony is unprofitable. The average works only for itself. The beekeeper benefits a strong family that can handle more than 10 frames.
In the orphaned family in the summer you can bring a new uterus:
- destroy the bad;
- after some time, destroy all queen cells in this colony;
- put a control frame from another family with a one-day sowing;
- carry out standard care;
- control the output of the new queen and the first sowing.
After it becomes clear that the queen and her sowing are complete, the colonies are framed by other hives with an almost ready-to-go sowing to strengthen the family.
How to fix family tinder fall
In the fall, if possible, a new queen is also planted in the tinder family. If this is absent, the swarms unite.
It makes sense to bring a new female only if she has time to leave the queen cell at the beginning of September and fly out on a flight before September 15. Otherwise, in the spring, it will be a tinder family again.
Here it is also necessary to take into account that working individuals leaving in August-September are leaving for wintering. But the truster families do not have a good fetal queen, and the colony will be spent for the winter, weakened. To avoid this situation, an orphaned swarm is attached to another family.
How to fix a tinder if there are no spare queens
In the absence of reserve queens, in the fall, the canties are combined with a layer from another hive. Working individuals from the layering themselves will kill the tinder bees, if there are any. In the spring and summer, you can bring your own new womb to the tinder, but the process is rather complicated.
In the evening, an hour before the bees' device for the night, all the frames are taken out of the hive. After all the inhabitants return home, they close the entrance and enter the hive in the basement. Ceiling lap removed to make it colder. The hive must be well ventilated, otherwise the swarm will suffocate. In such conditions, the tinder is kept for 24 hours.
The next day, another place was put on the place where the hive of troter was. It forms the layouts of 2 frames at the exit and 1 with a one-day sowing. There also set the framework, taken away before the tinder.
Late in the evening, a blanket is laid in front of the new hive, and bridges are made from the rods to the entrance to the bees so that the bees can climb them.
The canter is being carried out of the basement, shaken out on a blanket and driven into a new hive with a smoke. Having spent the night in a new place and having thought carefully about their behavior, the trouting next day becomes an ordinary bee family.
A similar operation can be carried out with a new tsarina or in the presence of a layer with a female. When correcting the tinder with the help of the layering in the first days, the queen will have to be protected using a special small cage, since at first the tinder may not accept it.
If there was only a spare female, then she was placed in the basement in a cage with tinder. In this case, by the time of release from the imprisonment of the tinder, they already have time to accept the new queen.
There are many different ways to correct the tinder, but according to beekeepers, this one gives 100% results.
Borter unlike the drone - evil is unconditional and independent of the context in which this term is used. Any tinder should be eliminated as soon as possible. Separate individuals through physical extermination, swarm - through re-education.