Ancient Aztecs also grew the cynium, Russian summer residents are also well acquainted with this flower, but they call it mainly a "major". Zinnias are great for decorating the local area in a rustic style, which in recent years has become increasingly popular in Europe, and throughout the world. You can combine these flowers with marigolds, lion's throat, marigolds, or use more elegant varieties to compose the composition - Zinia looks great in tandem with any flowers. Flower growers love the majors for their variegated colors and amazing simplicity, appreciate for ease of cultivation and long flowering periods.
How to grow zinia from seed, when to plant seedlings in the ground and how to care for adult flowers, and this article will be devoted.
Description of the species
Zinnia (Latin name Zinnia) is a shrub from the Astro family. This flower comes from southern Mexico, and since the end of the last century tsinii have already been distributed to all continents of the globe.Attention! There are about twenty species of major and several hundred varieties of this flower. The most popular types are considered to be the Ziniya Graceful, Pompon and George.
The characteristics of the flowers of cynium are as follows:
- one-year vegetation cycle, although in warm countries this flower is cultivated as a perennial;
- various flower heights - from 20 to 100 cm, which makes it possible to divide all tsynias into dwarf, short, medium-tall and tall species;
- the leaves of the flower are whole, ovate, pointed, pubescent with rigid short hairs;
- stalk powerful, grassy, also covered with down;
- inflorescences - apical single baskets;
- diameter of flowers can be different - from 3 to 15 cm;
- peduncles long;
- petals can be placed single or tile, creating a complex lush inflorescences;
- Tsiniia are painted in absolutely any shades, except for the blue palette;
- flower resistant to drought and high temperatures;
- poorly tolerated Zinia cold, the flower and its seeds die at -1 degree;
- Major's fruit - achene with tuft, filled with seeds;
- The plant is very unpretentious, its seedlings are easy to grow at home.
Important! Zinnias are great for cutting, as they have powerful long stems and can stand in water for more than a week.
Determination of planting dates
To answer the question of when to plant tsini on seedlings, you need to know some of the features of this flower. For example, the vegetation period for cynia from sowing seeds to flowering is about two and a half months. The “seedling” phase of the life of these flowers lasts from four to six weeks.
The timing of sowing cynium will still largely depend on the climate in a particular region of the country, because, as already mentioned, these plants do not tolerate cold at all. Even a short zero temperature will be detrimental to the seedlings of the majors, therefore, it is necessary to engage in planting flowers only when the soil warms up well and the threat of spring frosts passes.
Attention! In the southern regions with early spring majors sow directly into the ground, not engaged in the cultivation of seedlings. But this method of planting is suitable only for areas with a persistently warm climate.
Simple calculations will help determine that the best time to sow seedlings for seedlings in seedlings will be mid-April. Such seedlings will quite have time to grow, harden and become stronger before disembarking to a permanent place. The bloom of cynium in this case should begin at the end of June or in the first days of July.
How sow majors on seedlings
So, sowing cynium need not earlier than April. By this time, prepare flower seeds, seedlings and containers. To check the germination of seeds, it is recommended to wrap them in a cotton pad moistened with Epin solution. Last year's seeds should appear in a couple of days, but older ones will need about a week.
Important! At the initial stage, the flower grower must take into account that tsiniya does not tolerate transplantation very well, therefore it is not necessary to dive the seedlings of this flower. So that the seedlings are not crowded, the seeds are carefully laid out at a sufficient distance from each other.
Soil for sowing majors seeds should be nutritious and loose, well drained. Perfectly prepared self-made mixture of garden soil (which can be taken directly from the flowerbed), peat, humus and river sand in equal proportions.
Capacity for sowing zinnia seeds should be low, but volumetric - then the planting of flowers will be common. There is another option for planting cynium seedlings in individual pots or peat tablets.
In any case, the seeds of the majors are laid out 2-3 pieces in one planting hole. The depth of seeding should not exceed one centimeter. The distance between adjacent holes is about five centimeters.
The seeds spread out on the ground are lightly dusted with dry earth or peat and sprayed with spray plantings. Now it is necessary to create greenhouse conditions for the seedlings of flowers, covering the container with food film or transparent glass.
Attention! The optimum temperature for zinnia germination is 22-24 degrees. In such conditions, the first shoots will appear in 2-3 days.
How to care for seedlings
Until the seeds germinate, several times a day, the film or glass should be removed and wiped dry with a clean cloth, removing the condensate. As soon as all sprouts appear, shelter is removed and containers or cups with cynia are placed in a lighter place. It can be a table standing near a window, or a window sill. As a rule, in April, the natural sun is already enough, so do not need to finish the seedlings of flowers.
Due to lack of light, tsini seedlings can stretch out. If this happens, you need to cover the formed adventitious roots, just put some soil in the tray. The scorching spring sun can also destroy tsiniia seedlings, so it is better to provide diffused light to the flowers (having covered the window with a curtain or a dense mesh).
Watering cynium seedlings should be regularly, but not too plentiful - the ground should not dry out, but excessive moisture is also not needed. Water for irrigation is taken at room temperature.
In late May, you can gradually make seedlings on the street or on an open balcony with the purpose of hardening. The hardening process should last at least a week.
With how to grow tsini seedlings, everything is clear, it remains to deal with the planting of these flowers in a permanent place. The best time for planting seedlings in the ground will be the end of May, in the northern regions it is better not to rush and wait for the June heat (after all, the cold is detrimental to zini).
When the soil warms up well, you can begin to prepare:
- The seedling containers are shed well with warm water so that the cynium branching roots can be easily separated from each other.
- Choose in a flowerbed well-illuminated area, closed from the draft and the wind. The soil there should be neutral, nutritious, well drained. Therefore, if the soil does not meet these requirements, it must be prepared (deoxidize, add sand and peat, feed with mineral fertilizers).
- Considering the spread of cynium, the wells are made at a distance of at least 35 cm from each other. The depth of the holes should be about 10-15 cm.
- Seedlings are transferred to a permanent place by the method of transshipment or planted flowers in peat cups (tablets). It is necessary to act very carefully, since the majors do not tolerate the transplant, their roots are easily injured.
- Squeeze the soil around the stem of the seedling and water each plant with warm water.
Direct cultivation from seeds is also quite suitable for zine, because these flowers do not like transplanting. If there is still cool weather in the region, and it is time to sow flowers, you can create a mini-greenhouse over the crops simply by pulling a plastic wrap. In the southern regions, cynium seeds are simply sown in the soil at the end of May or in early June. The flowering of majors in this case will be later (by 2-3 weeks), but the plants will be much healthier and stronger.
How to care for majors
Photos of flowers tsiniya beautiful: these large inflorescences of various shapes and colors will be a real decoration for any garden. What will especially please the grower who chose the majors, so this is that they absolutely do not need complex care.
All cynical care consists of such simple actions:
- it is necessary to fertilize flowers only twice per season (one month after transplanting and immediately before flowering). As a fertilizer suitable and mineral complex, and a solution of liquid mullein. Fertilizers need to be in liquid form, watering the flowers at the root.
- If the florist needs low, but thick tsini bushes, then you can pinch the flowers. They do this even in the seedling stage, when several pairs of true leaves appear on the plants. Pinching is done over 4-5 leaf. It is possible to form a majore shrub on a flowerbed, but it is done before the budding period.
- During periods of severe drought, zinia should be watered, water should be brought strictly under the root, trying not to wet the leaves and flowers.
Of the pests for majors, the most dangerous are the aphid, cockchafer, slug and snail. The last two need to be fought "by hand": collect gastropods, spreading slate near the flowers or mulch the soil with large sawdust. Everything is easier with insects - flowers are sprayed a couple of times with chemical insecticides.
- Zinia can get sick, usually fungal infections or all kinds of rot. To deal with such diseases is extremely difficult, you have to remove the affected flowers completely. Therefore, it is better to prevent infection and follow the recommendations for growing majors: plant flowers in a sunny place, do not thicken the planting, do not be zealous with watering.
At the end of the season, tsinii are simply pulled out along with the roots and destroyed, so that next spring they plant new flowers on the flowerbed.
Attention! Cynia seeds are harvested, somewhere, two months after the start of flowering. Choose the largest inflorescences and wait for them to turn brown. Cut flowers and dry, then shake out the seeds.
Zinia is an unpretentious and very beautiful flower that is hard not to notice because of its variegated and rich colors, large buds, thick and lush bushes. It is not difficult to grow majors, these flowers can be planted as seeds and seedlings. How to plant flowers correctly, described above - you just need to adhere to these recommendations.
Read more about planting tsiniya seeds in this video: