Pear Thumbelina obtained by hybridization in Moscow VSTISP. The method of pollination of hybrid number 9 and several southern varieties, taught fruit culture of autumn ripening. Originators of a grade N. Efimov and Yu. Petrov in 1995 transferred a pear to experimental cultivation. The fruit tree in the central part of the Russian Federation has been zoned, in 2002 the culture was entered into the State Register. A description of the variety, photos, reviews of pear Thumbelina gardeners cultivating this plant will help to learn more.
Description pear varieties Thumbelina
Culture refers to the mid-term maturation. Biological ripeness pears reach by mid-September, the dates are focused on the central part of Russia and the Moscow region. Variety adapted to a temperate climate. It is characterized by high frost resistance. Tolerate without frosting of the root system and shoots lowering the temperature to -380 C. Pear gives a stable yield regardless of weather conditions. The insufficient amount of ultraviolet radiation does not affect the taste of the fruit. Pear Thumbelina is average, the first crop yields after 6 years of vegetation. The fruit tree blooms late, he is not afraid of return spring frosts. This factor is the key to high yield.
External description pear Thumbelina:
- It reaches a height of 1.7 m, the crown is thick, spreading. The branches are medium in size, upright growing slightly down. The color of perennial trunks is brown, the young shoots are maroon, after 1 year of vegetation they get a common color with central branches.
- Leaves with a smooth, glossy surface, medium size, oval shape, narrowed, with numerous fine teeth along the edge.
- The flowers are white, collected in inflorescences. On the branches are formed collar, the place of the formation of inflorescences, then fruits. The variety blooms profusely, the percentage of shedding of flowers is low, the ovaries form at 95%. The variety is self-fertile, flowers are bisexual.
Thumbelina pear with small fruits, the category of dessert varieties. Glucose dominates in the composition, the concentration of titrated acids is insignificant. Photosynthesis does not require a large amount of ultraviolet radiation, so the taste of the fruit will not change in a rainy, cold summer. Pear ripens at the beginning of autumn, it is recommended to harvest in time. Ripe fruit prone to shattering. The structure of a pear has a dense consistency, the fruits are stored for a long time, suitable for preservation.
Photo pear fruit Thumbelina match their description:
- the form is rounded symmetric, correct;
- the stem is thin, long, easily separated from the collar;
- fruits weighing 80 g ripen simultaneously;
- the peel during technical ripeness is green with a yellow tinge, the blush is mild, light red, at the time of ripening the peel is yellow, the stain becomes crimson, increases in size;
- the surface is smooth with numerous brown dots;
- the flesh is yellow, dense, juicy, fragrant, without granulation.
After harvesting, the fruit retains its flavor and presentation for about 14 days.Tip! To extend the shelf life of pears up to 4 months, the fruit is placed in a refrigerator, the recommended temperature is +4.0 C.
Pros and cons varieties
Thumbelina Pear grow because of the excellent taste characteristics. In addition to the taste of the fruit, the variety has a number of positive characteristics:
- stable yield, regardless of weather conditions;
- aesthetic appearance;
- small fruit tree, takes up little space on the plot;
- photosynthesis is not impaired with a deficit of ultraviolet radiation;
- frost resistance;
- long shelf life of fruits;
- resistant to infections and garden pests.
The disadvantages include:
- after ripening, the fruits are showered;
- demanding irrigation at the time of formation of the ovary.
Optimal conditions for growing
Fruit culture is zoned in the climatic conditions of the Central regions. The variety is fully adapted to the temperate climate. Due to frost resistance, pear trees are grown in the Moscow region, the Volga-Vyatka region, and are found in the Urals.
Thumbelina Pear is quite unpretentious in agricultural technology, stable yield gives even with insufficient amount of sunlight. Can grow in the shade of tall growing trees. It will bloom at a relatively low temperature, the samoplodnaya culture gives a lot of ovaries, in order to preserve them, abundant watering is required in late spring and early June. Thumbelina Pear badly tolerates the effects of the north wind to protect the fruit tree from drafts, planted it behind the wall of the building from the south or west side.
The soil for pear Thumbelina preferred neutral or slightly alkaline, suitable loam, the best option - sandy. The culture requires watering, but constantly overwetted soil can cause root rot and tree death. Therefore, the pear should not be placed in the lowlands, where rainwater accumulates, on wetlands with close groundwater.
Planting and care for pear Thumbelina
You can plant pear Thumbelina in spring and autumn. Taking into account that the aureole of the spread of culture - regions with cold winters, more often planting work is done in the spring. During the warm season, the sapling tree will get sore and well rooted. If a pear is planted in the fall, they are guided by regional features of the climate; there should be at least 3 weeks before the onset of the first frost. In the Moscow region - approximately the beginning of October.
Planting material purchased in nurseries with a good reputation, 2-year-olds. The seedling should be with the first circle of skeletal branches, intact bark on the trunk of a dark brown color. Also with a well-formed root system without mechanical damage, visually determined by the vaccination site.
A week before the planned planting of the seedling, a planting recess of 80 * 60 cm is prepared. The upper fertile soil is mixed with sand and organic matter in equal parts, then potash phosphate fertilizer is added in the amount specified in the instructions. Pear root is dipped for 4 hours in a solution of water with "Appin" to stimulate growth.
- Retreat 15 cm from the center of the pit, drive a count.
- The fertile mixture is divided into 2 parts, one poured into the bottom of the planting hole, form a hill in the form of a cone in the center.
- If the seedling is in a container, the mixture is placed in an even layer, the pear using the transshipment method is placed in the center with an earthy ball.
- The roots of the planting material without the container are distributed evenly over the pit.
- Fall asleep with the second part of the soil mixture, above the ground.
- Seal the radical circle, watered.
- Fix the trunk to the pole.
Watering and feeding
Thumbelina pear begins to bear fruit at 6 year after placement in the ground. Fertilizers are applied during planting, they are enough for 3 years. If the soil is acidic, in the fall before planting they are neutralized with dolomite flour. At 4 years of growth, the procedure is recommended to repeat. If this measure is not necessary, it is enough to add compost diluted in water under the root in spring.
The main feeding of pear is required for 6 year. During flowering, saltpeter is scattered around the tree, fed with urea. When the ovaries are formed, “Kafor” is introduced, during the period of fruit ripening, fertilizing is carried out with magnesium sulfate. In the autumn make organic matter, mulch with peat. Thumbelina pear does not belong to drought-resistant varieties, watering is carried out as necessary, the main - in the period of the appearance of ovaries. If the summer is rainy, watering is not needed. Do not over-wet the soil.
Pear Thumbelina do not form a crown with skeletal branches, therefore, no pruning of the fruit tree is required. Enough sanitary cleaning in the spring before the start of sap flow. Remove the dry fragments. Young shoots thin out so that the fruits during maturation receive more nutrients. The tree is compact, the branches are upright, they can be shortened if desired by a few cm.
Pear Thumbelina whitewash 2 times a year in spring and autumn. In addition to the aesthetic direction, the event is prophylactic. The larvae of garden pests that overwinter in the bark and the fungus spores die after treatment. They bleach wood about 60 cm from the ground, use acrylic paint, lime or water-based emulsion. Spring coating on a pear coating protects the bark from sunburn.
Preparing for the winter
Before the onset of frost pear Thumbelina plentifully watered, pre-loosen the soil basal circle. Mulch dry sawdust or pine needles. A young tree up to 3 years old is recommended to be covered with spruce leaves. They put the arc, cover with a special material that does not allow moisture. Winter snow.
Pear Thistle Thumbelina
Thumbelina pear variety is samoplodny, pollination passes within 1 tree due to different-sex flowers. To improve the yield of pear, cross-pollination is recommended. Choose cultivars with the same flowering time. As pollinators fit Krasnoyarsk large, Veselinka and Sibiryachka. There are trees on the site within 10 m from the Thumbelina pear. If varieties suitable for pollination are located on a neighboring plot, this will be sufficient.
The culture blooms in the second half of May, when there is no threat of spring frosts, so the flowers do not fall off, which is the key to yield. The ovaries are prone to shattering, they can be saved by timely watering. The variety is short, for its size gives a good harvest - with 1 unit. collect 15-25 kg of fruit. In order to improve the rate of fruiting, plant a graft on a high-growing representative of the fruit crop.
Diseases and pests
The most common disease affecting fruit trees is scab. Pear Thumbelina possesses stable immunity against a fungal infection. A threat to a pear is:
- Mealy dew - spreads fungus on the crown and branches in the form of a gray bloom. Fundazol or Sulphite is used against the infection.
- Black cancer - affects the bark of the tree, the initial manifestation in the form of corrosion, without treatment, there are deep wounds. Wood is treated with copper sulfate. In the fall, the affected areas are covered with soda water, the leaves and dry branches are burned.
- Monilioz - causes rotting of fruits, if they remain on the tree, then the infection spreads to all pears. When a disease is detected, the affected fruit is removed, the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquor.
From garden pests parasitized on pear Thumbelina gall mite. In early spring, for preventive purposes, they spray the fruit culture "Inta Veer". Before the formation of the fruit is treated with colloidal sulfur.
Reviews about pear ThumbelinaInna Volkova, 51, KolomnaDacha Thumbelina grows 8 years, the last 2 years gives a good harvest. The fruits are very juicy, sweet, without granules in the pulp. I collect pears in the middle of September, I use for winter preparations: compote, jam, jelly. Last pears put in the refrigerator until January. So that the tree does not hurt, in the early spring I spray copper sulfate. In the next plot, the fruits rot on the tree, there is no problem with Thumbelina in this regard, the tree has never been sick for 8 years. Irina Dinaeva, 55, Omsk does not occupy. Fruits steadily every year, the variety is fully suitable for our climate. Not afraid of frost. Care is minimal. Fruits are sweet, juicy, grandchildren until January with homemade fruit - both savings and benefits. This year I collected 20 kg of crop from a tree, a good indicator for a short crop.
Biological description of the variety, photos, reviews of pear Thumbelina completely correspond to the characteristics stated by the originators. The variety is zoned in the climatic conditions of Central Russia, adapted to low temperatures. Culture does not require special agrotechnics, it has a good immunity to fungal infections. Gives fruit with a high gastronomic rating.