Keeping bees is not only a hobby and getting tasty nectar, but also hard work, since hives often become infected with various diseases. Wax moth is a common pest that causes great damage to the apiary. The mole itself is harmless, the larvae pose the greatest threat. They eat honeycombs, honey, cherries, propolis and spoil bee cocoons. When a wax moth appears in the hives, it immediately leaves its home.
What is the "wax mole"
The wax moth is a moliform, moth of the family Ognevok, with which beekeepers are fighting annually.
The life cycle of an insect consists of 4 stages:
- adult individual
Attitude to this insect is different. Some are struggling with it, others are specially bred. This is explained by the fact that the larvae, eating a beekeeping product, absorb all the useful substances. As a result, the insect becomes useful and can save from many ailments. But to make a natural remedy, you need to sacrifice a whole hive. Only industrial farms can grow caterpillars, mostly beekeepers are ruthlessly fighting this insect.
What does the wax moth look like?
In nature there are 2 types:
- The large wax moth is a large insect, with a wingspan of 3.5 cm. The front pair of wings is colored dark yellow, the back ones are beige.
- Small wax moth - wingspan is 2.5 cm. The front wings are gray-brown, the rear wings are dirty-white.
In an adult individual, the oral organs are not developed, therefore it does not bring harm. Her role is procreation. The larvae, on the contrary, eat everything in their path, even their feces, eating their whole lives.
Wax moth larvae
The caterpillar develops 4 days. Hatching, it reaches a length of 1 mm, has 16 legs and a pair of bristles on the back side. After birth, she is inactive, fed by honey and pollen. Then begins to actively move and eat everything in its path.
A light white caterpillar with a dark head makes its way along the edges of the cells and in the walls of open cells. During the entire life cycle, the adult larva eats up to 1.3 g of wax. On the one hand, it is not so much, but 3 generations of 5 pairs of moths can destroy up to 500 kg of land per season.
If the pest has settled in the bee house, then the bee-field will stop laying eggs and the bees bring honey. When an insect appears, the bees start fighting with it, but in just a few hours the parasites become very much and some masonry will let the shaggy workers pass the masses. If you do not start a timely struggle, the bee family will leave the hive.Important! The wax moth loves dry heat, is found in regions located high above sea level.
At what temperature does the wax moth die?
Since the wax moth is a moth, it is afraid of sunlight. This photophobia can be used as an insect control. For this, the land affected by the larvae is exposed to the sun and after 2-3 minutes the larvae leave their home. If the cells are left at a temperature of 10 ° C, then a large wax mole at all stages of the life cycle will die within an hour and a half.
A small mole causes less damage to the honeycomb, develops at a temperature of 30 ° C. At temperatures below 16 ° C and above 35 ° C, the eggs die.
What is dangerous pest for bees?
The moth is one of the main pests of the beekeeper, bringing great damage to the farm. It affects weaker families, abnormally shaped layouts and tinder families. At night, the parasite lays eggs, gluttonous larvae emerge from them, which feed on honey, perga, weatherization of beehives and honeycombs. They also harm brood. When settling the parasite, bee colonies start to hurt, may die or leave their home.
Methods of dealing with the wax moth
Before you get rid of the wax moth in the hive with bees, you need to know the causes of the appearance and signs of damage to the parasite.
The features include:
- performance degradation;
- bees are lethargic, rarely fly out for nectar;
- cream worms appear on the bottom;
- in the compartments, you can find moth feces resembling onion seeds;
- at the bottom of the hive a large number of dead bees, when viewed from insects, wings and legs are shrouded in thin cobwebs;
- if you bring a burning match to the entrance and then gently shake the bee house, you can see small larvae on the bottom of the hive.
The following factors can provoke the appearance of parasites:
- failure to keep clean the hives;
- weak bee family;
- high humidity;
- the family was left without a womb;
- high temperature in the wintery;
- late removal of dead bees in the compartments.
Bee house needs timely cleaning. Often, when cleaning in Perge, larvae, excrement of wax moth are found, in this case it is necessary to free the hive, thoroughly clean and disinfect it.
If between the cells formed a cluster of cobwebs, then the insect made a nest, where it lays its eggs. When a cell is detected, it is removed from the hive, the site of infection is well treated. In place of the old cells, install new ones. You can not use honeycombs from other bee houses, as they can also be infected with a parasite.
You can fight wax moths in beehives in several ways:
- folk remedies.
Wax moth preparations
Many beekeepers use a chemical method to combat wax moths. The medicine can be purchased at any pharmacy.
- Formic acid - 14 ml of the preparation are used for each body. After 1.5 weeks, the procedure is repeated. Honeycombs are ready for use through a 7-day airing.
- Sulfur gas - per 1 square. m rooms burn up to 50 g of sulfur. The treatment is carried out indoors. The treatment is repeated several times, every 14 days. The drug is harmful to humans, so the fight against insects is carried out in a respirator. Before using the hive, it is thoroughly ventilated. Sulfur can be harmful to health, no matter how the bees clean the cells, the particles of the chemical element still remain. A persistent smell soars for a long time in the hive. When collecting honey there is a chance of sulfur in the bee product.
- Vinegar - for 1 hive requires 200 ml of 80% of the drug. The fight is carried out 5 days in a row. Honeycombs are ready for use 24 hours after airing. Vinegar will not only get rid of insects, but also disinfect the hive.
- Ascomolin - take 10 tablets per 1 frame, wrap in material and place inside the house, honeycombs are not removed from the hive. The hive is wrapped in plastic and left for a day. Frames are ready for use 24 hours after airing.
- Paradichlorobenzene (antimol) - the medicine is placed between the frames at the rate of 150 g per cubic meter. The treatment is carried out for 7 days, after which the hive is ventilated for a week.
- Biosafe - to combat use the drug in the form of a freshly prepared aqueous suspension. Spend spraying honey and ground sushi at the rate of 30 ml for each street. The effect comes in a day, the drug acts throughout the year.
- Entobacterin - cells are sprayed with 3% of the drug at the rate of 25 ml per 1 frame at a temperature of 30 ° C. The mole begins to eat the wax soaked in the solution and dies. Bees and brood drug does not harm.
- Thymol is an effective drug against night moth. The powder is poured into a gauze bag and placed on top of the frame. The treatment is carried out 2 times, but at a temperature of 26 ° C, the preparation is removed from the hive.
What if the mole in the hive with bees
If white worms appeared near the hive, this is the first sign of the presence of a wax moth in the hive, the bees themselves begin to fight it. Such a home needs to be monitored and treated. For this, sweet traps are set up nearby - they attract the parasite, the moths drown in them, not having time to fly to the bee's dwelling.
If the hive is heavily infected, the bee family is relocated to another dwelling, adding a small amount of feed to the new honeycomb. After moving the bees, the bottom is cleaned of caterpillars, cobwebs, and other debris and blows fire. To do this, use a bunch of straw or a blowtorch. Fire process corners, slots, bottom and tray.Tip! The wax moth is massively settled only in weak families, therefore it is necessary to reinforce the bee swarm as much as possible.
How to deal with moth wax in the storage
Soto storage is a storage room for spare honeycombs. They must be located at each responsible beekeeper. Sometimes they are kept in a cellar, basement or unheated garage. To prevent the appearance of parasites, conduct regular disinfection and prevention of wax moths.
Wax moth appears in soto-storage at high temperature and humidity, as well as poor ventilation.
Stopmol is a common medicine for combating wax moths in the soot-storage. The drug is a small cardboard plate, soaked with fir and coriander oil. The drug has an insecticidal effect and affects the mole at different stages of development.
Instructions for combating wax moth using Stopmol for bees:
- Affected honeycombs are removed from the hive.
- The package is opened and 4 holes are made in each plate in the corners of 1 cm in size.
- The drug is laid out on sotoramki and packaged in polyethylene or removed in a sealed storage shed.
- To completely get rid of insects, it is necessary to use 1 plate on 12 frames.
- The course of treatment is 1.5 months, after which the plate is removed and the framework is ventilated.
How to get rid of wax moth on the framework
If there is a massive infection, you must immediately begin the fight against the pest. Beekeepers use a mechanical, chemical method or cope with folk remedies.Tip! When processing it is necessary to remember that treatment should be comprehensive. Chemical preparations cannot destroy the mole alone.
How to keep dry from the wax moth
Particular attention is paid to the storage of sushi in late summer, early autumn. In winter, due to low temperature parameters, the likelihood of the appearance of parasites is minimal. Therefore, in the spring and early summer, the wax moth does not bring big problems to the bee-farm. In summer, the parasite begins to multiply actively, if you do not carry out prophylaxis, the consequences can be dire.
Starting from July, the framework must be carefully checked. Dry land where the pest has only been wound up can be rearranged into a strong family or, after isolation, treated against the parasite in one of the proven ways.
To prevent mass infection, you need to know that the wax moth primarily affects the frame with brood, as well as with a large amount of bee bread. Therefore, store frames, where the brood never happens, are stored separately. Sushi is stored in empty hives, laying an oilcloth or polyethylene between the hulls.
Frames from under the brood and beef herb pay special attention: they regularly inspect and, if necessary, begin timely control of parasites.
How to deal with the moth wax folk remedies
Experienced beekeepers for getting rid of the wax moth does not use chemicals, but struggle with her folk remedies. Proven ways to deal with wax moth:
- Tobacco is a powerful natural medicine to combat wax moths. During flowering, tobacco is cut at the root and shifted between the honeycombs. With one foliage bush enough to handle 3 buildings.
- Marigolds - flowers are laid out in a collective storage. Their scent prevents infection with a wax moth.
- Fumigation with smoke - an old proven way to get rid of the wax moth. To do this, smoke fumigate smoke. In a container lined with tin, have a frame in several tiers. Through the lower notch fill the space with smoke. Burning support day. This procedure is carried out in spring and late autumn, 3 times with an interval of 7 days. If the honeycomb is infected, the caterpillars will begin to die on the second day of the struggle. After the procedure, the frames are aired, and shaggy workers willingly use the processed honeycombs.
- Wormwood - a framework in a storehouse is laid on all sides with fresh wormwood. The smell of grass deters parasites.
- Fragrant herbs - freshly harvested mint, wormwood, oregano, hops and walnut leaves are cut and laid out on the bottom of a bee house. Set the frame, put on top of another layer of chopped grass. Freshly harvested aromatic herb is indispensable in the fight against wax moth.
- Mint infusion - 30 g of grass is diluted in 50 g of boiling water and infused overnight. The solution process the streets between the frames. Infusion for bees is harmless. After processing, they work as before, and the larvae of the butterfly fall. A week later, the procedure is repeated.
- Garlic - in the fall, before harvesting the honeycombs in the storehouse, they are cleaned of propolis and rubbed with garlic. Shells and an empty hive are also treated with garlic. In the spring, repeat the prophylaxis. After processing, the wax moth does not appear in the apiary, the bees are healthy and highly productive.
- Salt - the popular way of dealing with the night butterfly. For processing the frame is cleaned, sprayed with brine and cleaned for storage. The spring frame is washed with water and installed in hives. After the saline solution, the parasites are not settled in bee houses.
Complex preventive measures
In order not to face the problem, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures:
- keep the apiary and hives clean;
- at the first sign of a timely start to fight with the wax moth in the hive;
- time to troubleshoot: repair the framework, repair gaps and cracks;
- keep the wax in a closed container and recycle as soon as possible;
- backup cells should be stored in a dry, cool, ventilated room.
Also experienced beekeepers planted plants near the bee dwellings that scare away insects. These include:
To prevent the mole from entering the hive, traps are set around the perimeter. A mixture of honey, perga and yeast is poured into the bowls. Also the night butterfly attracts the smell of vinegar. It is diluted in water and also placed near the dwelling. To prevent the larvae from crawling into a clean hive, a small moat with water is made around the hive.
Frames must be regularly inspected for the presence of the parasite. When found immediately begin to fight to save the bee family.
Wax - attracts wax moth, so you can not keep stocks where shaggy workers live. In order to save the hive from moving the larvae from one case with land to another, polyethylene, oilcloth or newspaper are laid on the cover (the mole is deterred by the smell of printing ink).
The wax moth is a dangerous enemy for the apiary. But with keeping hives clean and timely preventive measures, the insect will not harm the bees and will not create problems for the beekeeper.