Homeland walnut - Central Asia. On the territory of Russia, the tree appeared thanks to the Greek merchants, hence the corresponding name - walnut. Walnut grows throughout the world. It is successfully cultivated in Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus. Hazel has gained popularity due to the beneficial properties of fruits, green mass and bark.
Where does walnut grow?
Walnut grows almost everywhere: some varieties are perfectly adapted for planting in the northern regions. Some species can tolerate prolonged frosts, almost immune to insect pests. The preferred place of growth - in well-lit, spacious, not wetlands. Hazel grows quickly on hills, in loamy soils.
Where does walnut grow in the world
The tree grows in places with a temperate climate, however, it prefers the southern regions more. Wild landings can be seen on the territory of the Transcaucasus and in the Talysh Mountains. Often wild hazel grows in the humid canyons of the Himalayas. Specially grown nuts in China, India, Austria, Greece. Practice planting in the gardens of Germany and Italy.
Walnut forest plantations can be seen in the Tien Shan mountains, on the territory of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These forests are considered the largest in the world.
Where does walnut grow in Russia?
Trees are common in the middle lane, and they are regularly planted in the southern regions of Russia. Practice landing in the Moscow and Leningrad region. In the northern regions, cultivation is worse. The tree does not tolerate long-lasting low temperatures, the maximum limit is 30 degrees of frost.Important! Long frosts are destructive for walnuts, low temperatures affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
Breeders are engaged in breeding varieties that can grow for a long time at very low temperatures. But in most cases, such seedlings practically do not give fruit.
Does a walnut grow in the Moscow region?
Walnuts are successfully grown in the Moscow region. The tree grows in gardens and park areas. In the state register of breeding achievements there are more than 25 varieties that are well established in this area. Trees tolerate frosts well, and in summer they are able to withstand a long absence of watering.
It should be remembered that the planting of each sapling has its own agricultural practices and features. Proper care will help grow a strong tree with high yields.
In Moscow it is recommended to plant seedlings away from drafts. In the first years of life, the main trunk is fragile, so it can break off in strong winds. The best option for disembarking is a well-lit area near buildings, buildings. When planting at the dacha plot, attention should be paid to the fact that in the process of growth the tree obscures a large plot, therefore, it is necessary to plant vegetables away from the nut.Important! Walnut in the process of growth produces phytoncides, which can harm other vegetation.
As the walnut grows and ripens
The walnut grows very long, belongs to long-livers. Therefore, at the age of 25-45 years, the sapling is considered young and is in the juvenile period. The peculiarity of the nut is that the quantity and quality of the crop increases with age.
Walnut grows well and develops under optimal climatic conditions. It tolerates dry weather and not severe frosts. However, return frost is dangerous for a seedling. Spring temperature changes are disastrous for vegetation. Damaged main shoots and leaves, which later affects the yield. Over time, new branches are formed, but this requires a lot of time.
The period of fruit ripening on the tree - August - September, rarely - October. The exact period of harvest depends on the region of growth and the variety planted.
There are several types:
- medium early;
Each species has differences in the period of flowering and final fruiting. For each region should select the appropriate grade.
What does a walnut tree look like?
During the period of active development and growth, the walnut tree forms a wide trunk, reaching 30 m in height, 2 m in diameter. The color of the bark is grayish-white, the crown is thick and wide with a large number of branches. The root is powerful, it goes deeper into the ground by more than 7 m. The lateral root system is rather long - more than 10 m.
The next leaves are complex, pinnate. The length of the plate is 5-7 cm. The green mass with a peculiar aroma looks very attractive during flowering. The flowers are small, green, going into neat earrings. Flowering period: end of April - beginning of May, duration - 2 weeks. In late-maturing varieties, buds may re-bloom in mid-summer. Pollination occurs with the help of wind or pollen of nearby plants.
Walnuts grow on spreading trees, the crown diameter of which is about 20 m. The fruits are solid, brown in color, have a four-lobe seed, covered with a thin film. The peel is green, dense in structure, slightly wrinkled and nodular.
How many years does walnut grow?
The walnut hazel grows long enough - a long-lived tree. When planting in optimal climatic conditions can grow and bear fruit well up to 600 years. Wild trees in forest areas can live more than 1200 years.
How long does a walnut grow before fruiting?
The period of full growth and development of the plant depends on the variety. On early-ripening species, the first fruits appear 3-6 years after planting. Mid-season and late-ripening before the first fruiting grow and develop for at least 10 years. From 10-12 years old, a tree can produce from 1 to 5 kg of crop per season. Abundantly produce adult trees that have reached the age of 50-60 years.Attention! The older the tree, the higher the yield.
How fast does a walnut grow?
Mid-season and late varieties grow long enough, can often survive more than one host. Early trees grow much faster, but these species require some care.
How many nuts does walnut give?
For the season from a single walnut tree, you can get from 15 to 350 kg of high-quality harvest. This indicator may vary depending on the age of the tree, the region of growth and the quality of care. A sapling, which about 10 years old fruits a little bit - a maximum of 5 kg of fruit per year.
When to harvest a walnut
The ripening period of a typical walnut falls on the beginning of autumn. More accurate harvest time depends on the region in which it is grown. When the crop ripens, the leaves on the branches become dull in color, and the fruits themselves fall to the ground.
It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with some of the signs by which you can determine the exact timing of the harvest:
- cracking of green pericarp;
- staining of most leaves in yellow;
- harvest time can be determined by knowing the varietal characteristics of the plant.
When walnuts are harvested in the middle lane
Growing a plant in the middle lane is a laborious process. In this region, hazelnut fruits irregularly. When creating favorable conditions for growth, you can collect a good harvest. Fruits begin to fall from the tree by August, but most of them have poorly separated pericarp. The harvested crop is first placed in a dark, cool place, after full maturity it is well dried in the sun.
When walnuts ripen in the Krasnodar Territory
In the Krasnodar Territory harvesting is done a little later. Walnuts are fully ripe in this region in mid-September. Trees growing in Krasnodar are significantly different from those grown in other regions: they have abundant fruiting, the bulk of the crop is of impressive size.
When a walnut ripens in the Crimea
Crimea belongs to the region where walnuts are actively grown. Due to favorable climatic conditions, the tree grows throughout the Crimea. Collection of fruits produced closer to August. However, in order to avoid their damage by rodents and other pests, some gardeners prefer to harvest much earlier. Immature fruits with a green pericarp are knocked down with a stick and left to dry in the sun. After a couple of days, the peel is easily separated, followed by drying.
How to understand that walnut is ripe
When it comes time to harvest, the fruits begin to fall off the tree. It should be remembered that the tree matures and grows unevenly, so the harvest is not carried out for 1-2 days, sometimes this process is delayed for weeks. After the ripe fruits have fallen to the ground, it is recommended to collect within a day, otherwise the likelihood of damage by rodents and insects is high.
Another indicator of ripening is the cracking of the pericarp. This process can occur right on the tree. Therefore, the harvesting procedure can be carried out earlier, used the roll to knock down the fruit.Attention! In order to avoid damage to walnuts, experienced gardeners recommend using special tools for harvesting: the process is comfortable for the gardener, the fruits are not damaged.
How is walnut harvesting
Timely harvesting ripened crop is a very important task. Correctly determining the exact time of ripening, you can start harvesting the fruit.
Due to the fact that the tree is tall, manual harvesting is a rather laborious process. Often ripe walnuts knocked with a stick or removed with a special roll to collect. The collected fruits shake well, cleaned from the green skin. If the pericarp is separated poorly, the crop is dried in the sun.
Walnut harvest rules:
- Fruits that have fallen to the ground should be harvested within 24 hours, otherwise there is a high risk of damage to the crop by mold. The earth's moisture destroys the amniotic membrane, the deterioration of the product begins.
- If harvesting is done with a stick, ripe nuts and those not ripe in the pericarp may fall to the ground. To collect such a crop should be in separate containers. Fruits with pericarp should be held for several days in the basement or cellar.
- If you harvest the unripe fruits, you should put the harvest in a dark, cool place, wait until full ripening. This procedure should be performed with nuts that do not have a pericarp. When the shell begins to move away well from the shell - the harvest is fully ripe.
- It is possible to reap a walnut harvest when the protective rind of the fruit begins to crack. To do this, shake the branches of a tree. However, as practice shows, this method is quite difficult to knock down most of the nuts, so gardeners resort to the use of long objects.
- Well-ripened fruits may fall if they fall onto hard ground. In this case, it is recommended to use special devices for harvesting.
Walnut grows in almost every region. By creating optimal conditions for growing the tree you can get a bountiful and high-quality harvest. It should be noted that at least 10 years pass from the moment of planting to the first fruiting. In the process of active growth, the tree needs some care. For early harvest, it is recommended to choose early ripe varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of the region.