Mulberry or mulberry is a beautiful tree that performs decorative functions as well as fruits with tasty and fragrant berries. Mulberry Black Baroness differs juicy black fruits, which are suitable not only for everyday use, but also for making jam, wine, syrups.
Description of Mulberry Black Baroness
Despite its name, the Black Baroness belongs to the white variety, because it has a light shade of bark. This variety is related to the early varieties of mulberry. The fruits ripen in June and July. Up to 100 kg of berries can be harvested from one tree.Important! What people call mulberries are actually small nuts, held together by a succulent pericarp.
The aroma of the berries of the Black Baroness is not strong, and the taste is sweet. The plant is able to withstand frost up to - 30 ° C, but only in the case of its short duration. Therefore, the tree can be grown in central Russia. Inflorescences with a light green tint, fluffy.
Pros and cons of the mulberry Black Baroness
The advantages of this variety are obvious:
- high yield;
- frost resistance;
- large fruits;
- adapts well to different climatic conditions;
- does not require additional pollination, because the tree is monoecious.
But there are some disadvantages of this variety:
- poor safety and impossibility of transportation;
- requires a lot of light.
The plant does not belong to the capricious care and content, and when pruning it can form any decorative form. Perfectly obtained "weeping" type of mulberry, when long with a beautiful bend branches are able to reach the ground.
Planting and care of the mulberry Black Baroness
To obtain a beautiful weeping tree and to harvest a large crop, it is important to follow strict agricultural practices. In this case, the long-lived tree will delight not only its owner, but also his children and grandchildren. The first harvest is obtained three years after planting.
Preparation of planting material and plot
It is necessary to plant a tree in a non-shaded area. Black Baroness loves a lot of sunlight, because in the shade of buildings will bring a small crop and develop poorly. At the same time it is important that in winter the tree be protected from cold piercing winds.
To the soil the plant does not impose special requirements. The main thing is that the soil is not too saline.
Mulberry perfectly strengthens sandy soil, thanks to its strong and extensive root system.
It is recommended to prepare a place for landing even in the fall. The depth, width and height of the fossa are 50 cm. Immediately before planting in the spring, you need to expand the dimensions of the fossa. The distance when planting between seedlings and other plants must be at least 3 m.
According to the rules, it is necessary to plant mulberry seedlings in spring. At the bottom of the excavated pit is placed a drainage of broken brick, pebbles or rubble. The drainage layer is especially important when the groundwater level is close.
From above the nutritious mix is filled up. It consists of land mixed with humus, with the addition of phosphate-potassium fertilizers.Attention! It is necessary to have a seedling in the ground with extreme caution. The root system is very delicate and easily damaged.
Therefore, the seedling must be carefully put and straighten the roots so that they do not break.
After installing the seedling root system gently sprinkle and tamp the ground. In the root zone should pour a bucket of water. Then around lay a layer of mulch from sawdust, peat or leaves. It will help maintain adequate moisture and nutrients.
Watering and feeding
Mulberry Black Baroness tolerates well and dry conditions, but with regular watering increases its frost resistance. Active watering is carried out from the beginning of spring to mid-August. In the presence of large rainfall during the summer you can not water the tree.
The first couple of years after planting the mulberry Black Baroness does not need additional feeding. She has enough nutrients that are made during planting.
Then it is necessary to feed the tree twice a year:
- In early spring, even in the presence of snow, urea is scattered. When the top layer is thawed, urea will be absorbed perfectly and saturate the roots. Fertilizer contribute at the rate of 50 g per square. m
- Potassium and phosphorus should be added in mid-August.
With such a regular feeding, the harvest will be good, and the plant will survive the winter without problems.
Mulberry Black Baroness on the height of the tree and the width is formed by pruning. The tree can be given a different shape, make it more spreading or spherical. This allows you to use mulberry as an ornament on the site.
For the formation of the crown, it is necessary to cut off all side shoots at a height of up to 1 m. It is recommended to do this in the spring, before sap flow begins. But at the same time, the air temperature should not fall below - 10 ° С.Important! The main difference between mulberry and many other plants is that it tolerates pruning and is quickly restored.
Sanitary pruning of mulberry Black Baroness is to remove all the sick and frozen branches. It can be carried out in parallel with the formative or separately every few years in late autumn.
In order to rejuvenate the tree, the Black Baroness is periodically trimmed with the removal of the oldest shoots.
Preparing for the winter
Despite the frost resistance, the mulberry Black Baroness in some regions, for example, in the Moscow region, should be prepared for winter.
The procedure for preparing for winter includes several mandatory steps:
- mulching of the tree trunk circle with sawdust and spruce branches;
- pruning all green shoots that were not woody by November;
- in the spring to protect against return frost, you can build smoke fires.
But to wrap the trunk specifically in the fall is not necessary, since it does not suffer from frost. Danger frost is for young shoots and unprotected root system.
The yield of mulberry Black Baroness high. But these berries can not be stored, as well as long-term transportation. Therefore, it is recommended to carefully harvest. Climbing up on a tree for berries is not necessary. It should only wait for ripening. The ready crop is showered on the ground. Simply lay a waterproof material or polyethylene and slightly shake the wood. All the berries that have ripened by this time, will fall. Those that do not go into food during the first day, it is recommended to start processing.
Diseases and pests
Mulberry Black Baroness is resistant to most diseases. When disembarking in too damp a place such illnesses can occur:
- powdery mildew;
- small-leaf curl;
- brown spot;
For prevention, it is recommended to treat the tree with special preparations that are bred strictly according to instructions, spray the tree before the flowering and fruiting period.
It is important to systematically inspect the tree and cut off the affected leaves, shoots and burn them. Also mulberry requires comprehensive protection against many pests, including:
- spider mite;
- mulberry peppered moth
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to dig up the earth around the trunk annually in order to destroy the eggs and larvae of many pests that have hibernated in the ground.
Mulberry Black Baroness can multiply in several ways, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages:
- rooting of green cuttings is the simplest and most frequently used method;
- seeds - labor-intensive process, requiring subsequent vaccination;
- root shoots.
The most commonly used cuttings, which are cut in June. Green stalk should have 2-3 buds. Lignified cuttings are cut 18 cm long.
Reviews of Mulberry Black Baroness
Many lovers of mulberry and simply sweet garden fruits celebrate the Black Baroness with exceptionally positive reviews.Sviridov Maxim, 46 years old, Moscow region I ventured to plant mulberry on my land, despite the fact that it is considered a southern plant. He chose the Black Baroness as a sort and was not mistaken. In the care of an unpretentious tree, perfectly endures the winters near Moscow and does not suffer from diseases. And the yield is such that we do not process the whole berry, we simply do not need it. And tasty mulberry wine is on the table all year long. Skorikov Anatoly, 35, Krasnodar Territory I have several varieties of mulberry growing on the plot, both black and white. But the Black Baroness among them is a clear favorite. Does not get sick, does not require complex care, tolerates aridity and frost. The main thing is not to forget to feed twice a year.
Mulberry Black Baroness refers to frost-resistant varieties with high yields. It is popular not only as a fruit tree, but also to decorate the site. The main thing is to feed the tree and form the crown correctly.