Honey plant is a plant with which the bee is in close symbiosis. Honey plants must be present in sufficient quantities near or at a small distance from the apiculture. During the flowering period, they are a natural source of food for insects, provide health and normal activity, are the key to the reproduction of offspring. For high-quality honey collection, the factor of proximity to large arrays of honey-bearing plants, which produce nectar in abundance, is important. This function can be performed by trees, shrubs and grasses. Below is an overview of herbal honey plants with photos and names.
What is honey plant
All plants, honey plants, important for beekeeping, are divided into nectarose, pollen, and nectaropyls. From nectar insects produce for themselves carbohydrate food - honey, pollen is a source of protein. The most valuable are the plants from which it is possible to collect both components of the diet of families. Honey plants emit these substances. Special nectar glands are located in the flowers themselves, on the stems, petioles, stipules and bracts. The composition and amount of nectar depends on the type, variety, age of plants, climatic conditions.
Among the honey-bearing plants, the most important for beekeeping are legumes, rosaceous, lip-flowered, complex-colored, buckwheat.Important! The time and sequence of flowering of honey herbs around the apiary determine honey collection.
It is subdivided into basic bribes — the most productive harvest of honey of better quality, and supportive — necessary for the bees to gain strength after wintering or before it. Usually, 30-40 species of honey plants are concentrated in a separate territory, providing good honey collection.
The best honey plants for bees
Grasses are considered to be first-class honey plants for bees, which are capable of providing abundant main bribes. The main factors are the duration of flowering and the amount of nectar secreted. Honey plants are characterized by the highest productivity:
- Cyprus (Ivan-tea);
- Medunica officinalis;
- Borage (Borage);
- Donnik (more than 12 types);
- Ammi Tooth;
- Field mint;
- Sage (nutmeg, meadow, whorled);
- Coriander seed;
- Althaea officinalis;
- Mouse peas;
- Syrotic vochnik;
- Thistle (garden, field);
- Origanum ordinary;
If the concentration of honey plants is insufficient near the apiary, or the honey harvest is broken due to weather conditions, beekeepers with hives move in search of fruitful places. The time of wandering is coordinated with the timing of flowering of various melliferous plants. In an effort to get monoflerny honey, the apiary roams to the growing places of one plant species. This method of collecting honey allows you to get 30-40% more product than from a stationary apiary.
Honey plants sown specifically for bees
To ensure a continuous process of honey harvesting and to improve the quantity and quality of the product around the apiary, honey plants are sown with different flowering times. They are not very demanding on the composition of the soil and weather conditions and at the same time produce large amounts of nectar. Podkrashivanie improves bribes, so that they bloom 2-3 times per season. The selection of melliferous plants sown near the apiary is determined by their nectar productivity and benefit to the farm. Many of them are fodder, medicinal, oilseeds.
Among the honey grasses specially planted around the apiary for bees, many have sideratny properties - structure and enrich the soil. In spring, they are sowing cold-resistant and early-ripening annuals - oats, feed peas, mustard. In the fall, the seeds of honey-green sideroats are buried in the ground one month before frost.Attention! In spring, the sowing of honey plants can be carried out several times with an interval of 15-20 days. Stop should be in the middle of summer.
Perennial bean plant is a honey plant, grown for animal feed. Saturates the earth with nitrogen. Frost-and drought-resistant, grows even on poor, stony and heavy soils, prefers neutral acidity and moderate humidity. Esparcet-honey plant blooms in May and June, allows you to get 280-400 kg / ha.
In the post-Soviet space grows 12 species of Donnik-honey plant, which are represented by annual and biennial plants. The first ones are sown for the autumn honey collection (August-September), two-year-olds bloom in the summer in a year. To continuously receive a monoflerny bribe, the field is divided into sections and trimmed at different times. The productivity of the sweet clover can reach 500 kg / ha. Donnic white honey with an amber tint, herbal bouquet and mild taste with a subtle bitterness, crystallizes in large grains.
Forage plant. Enriches the earth with nitrogen. Demanding on soil moisture - drought ceases to give nectar. Clover-melliferous because of the peculiarities of the structure of the flower is not attractive for bees, beekeepers have to resort to training. The grass blooms all summer, honey production depends on the type: white clover gives 100 kg / ha, red - from 30 to 240 kg / ha (depending on the breed of bees), pink - 130 kg / ha, Persian shabdar - up to 300 kg / ha . Clover honey is light, almost transparent, very sweet, with a light herbal fragrance, and forms a small crystal when sugarized.
Annual and perennial grasses of the legume family, blooms from early summer to mid-autumn, cutting is practiced to repeat flowering. Alfalfa as a honey plant operates from June to August, gives up to 200 kg of nectar per hectare. Alfalfa honey is light amber, tender taste, prone to rapid crystallization.
Annual plant, undemanding to the composition of the soil, is used for the improvement of the soil. When sowing consecutively, the honey plant can bloom from June to September. The productivity of Honey Mustard depends on the time of sowing, ranging from 35 to 150 kg / ha. Mustard honey has a light yellow color, a slight herbal smell and a creamy structure. The taste is harmonious, not very sweet and not cloying.
The oilseed radish is grown as fodder grass and an excellent honey plant. Winter sowing of radish allows you to collect honey in April-May, spring - in the second half of summer. The plant nektaronosit even at low temperatures and lack of sunlight. From 1 ha of solid crops, bees receive up to 180 kg of honey. He has a very strong aroma and quickly candied.
The one-year pseudo-cereal crop, a buckwheat grass, is grown for human and animal consumption. Valuable green manure, saturates the soil with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Buckwheat nectar is harvested from the end of June for a month and a half. Medoproduktivnosti plants ranges from 70-200 kg / ha. Buckwheat as a honey plant is one of the best. Honey from her dark brown, with a tart taste and a sharp aroma, quickly crystallizes.
Unpretentious annual cruciferous grass, two plant species are cultivated - winter and spring. The first blooms in May and June, the second - in August and September. From a hectare of rapeseed-melliferous plant gives 30-90 kg of nectar. Rapeseed honey is white, thick. Sugared for a week.
A perennial plant that saturates the soil with nitrogen and has antibacterial properties. Kozlyatnik as a honey plant is attractive to bees due to its convenient location of nectaries in open colors. The grass blooms in the last decade of May; it stops nectar bearing at the end of June; its honey productivity is 150–200 kg / ha.
Perennial honey grass for bees
Among all the grasses sown near the apiary, beekeepers prefer perennial honey plants - they live for 10-15 years, have a predictable flowering period, there is no need to plant crops annually.
Valuable honey plant, in the wild, is found on forest edges, clearings, and the outskirts of forests. Honey grass Ivan-tea blooms in July and August, gives up to 400 kg of honey per hectare.
Medicinal herb-honey plant is represented by several species of perennials of the family Luminous. Among them, only three are of industrial importance. Field mint gives about 100 kg / ha for a season. Peppermint - in many specialized farms provides the main honey collection, yields up to 350 kg / ha. Honey productivity Mint long-leaf - 200 kg / ha. Mint as a honey plant makes it possible to obtain a product of a beautiful amber color with a cooling aftertaste.
Perennial herbaceous plant honey plant of the Burachnikov family. It blooms from late April to late May. Medoproduktivnost average - 60-70 kg per hectare. Provides a very important early summer honey collection.
Evergreen shrub-honey plant of the family Luminous. The flowering period depends on the region - from mid to late summer. The lavender honey plant gives about 200 kg of honey per hectare. Lavender honey is considered a valuable premium. It looks transparent, golden in color, with a pleasant herbal bouquet, retains a liquid consistency for a long time.
Evergreen low-growing shrub-honey plant, grows in the European part of the Russian Federation, in Western and Eastern Siberia. It grows on poor permeable soils - mountain slopes, wastelands, marshes, burns, peatlands. It blooms from July to September, valuable late honey plant, capable of giving nectar up to 100 kg / ha. Heather honey is viscous, dark red, fragrant, slightly bitter, does not sugary for a long time.
Goldenrod (Golden rod)
Perennial plant of the Astrovye family. Unpretentious to the conditions of growth, Goldenrod is valuable as a late honey plant. Gives a sufficient amount of nectar and pollen needed by bees before hibernation. Medoproduktivnosti plants - more than 150 kg per hectare. Goldenrod honey is golden yellow or reddish, has a sharp smell, harmonious taste with a slightly perceptible bitterness.
Lemon Catnip (catnip)
Kotovnik as a honey plant produces a good harvest - up to 400 kg of honey per hectare. Flowering period - from late June to late summer. The honey from Kotovnik is obtained in an amber shade, with a delicate aroma and taste, when sugarized it becomes light cream with a fine-grained structure.
The representative of the family Gillet. Kermec is valuable as a late summer honey plant. It blooms after the main bribes are collected - from the end of June to the very frost. Gives bees to grow young before wintering. Honey from Kermek is dark brown, with a characteristic bitterness, of low quality, sugared by large crystals. With a hectare of honey plant gives about 50 kg of nectar.
Veronica (double-leaved, long-leaved)
Herbaceous perennial of the family Plantain. Grows honey on the forest edges, in the gardens in the fields. All summer blooms, medoproduktivnost - more than 100 kg / ha.
Ivolist Greenstalk (Plakun-grass)
The representative of the family Derbennikovye. Occurs on the banks of reservoirs, flood meadows, marshes. The honey plant is blooming from June to September. Up to 350 kg of honey can be harvested from one hectare of continuous growth. The product has a tart taste, rich bouquet, amber color.
Cyanosis ordinary (cyanosis of azure)
The plant is common in central Russia and Siberia, is considered one of the best taiga honey plants. Flowering time - June-July. Allows you to collect up to 200 kg per hectare.
Perennial with a long flowering period - from June to the end of September. With a hectare of honey, it gives up to 85 kg of nectar. Oregano honey has a pleasant taste, light amber color, sugared slowly.
Sylphia pierced leaf
Among the perennial honey plants sown especially for bees, Sylphia is a record holder, can live up to 50 years. Feed and silage culture. It blooms from July to September, depending on climatic conditions and the number of mowing. Medoproduktivnosti plants can reach 350 kg / ha. Honey has a delicate taste with a slight bitterness, does not crystallize for a long time.
Hyssop (Blue Hypericum, Bee Grass)
Belongs to the family Lambs. Honey grows in the steppes, on dry, stony soils. The flowering period is from June to September. Every year increases medoproduktivnost. In the second year, 250 kg of nectar are obtained per hectare, in the third - more than 400 kg, in the fourth - about 800 kg. Honey from the grass of Issopa belongs to valuable varieties, has a pleasant taste and delicate smell.
Perennial or biennial plants of the Astro family, with more than 10 species. Weeds, grow everywhere. Honey plants are blooming from July to September, allow you to collect nectar up to 150 kg / ha. Codstone honey is aromatic, with a green tint, harmonious taste, during crystallization it acquires a fine-grained structure, suitable for wintering bees.
Fodder culture, honey plant, lives 8-10 years. It blooms from May to July. It has a high medoproduktivnost, increasing over the years. Per hectare of Sverbigi's concentrated vegetation, about 600 kg of nectar are collected.
Loves penumbra - rare forests, forest edges, parks, gardeners consider it a weed. Honey flowering continues throughout the summer, honey productivity - 160-190 kg / ha.
Forage plant, edible and for humans. Late honey plant. Flowering time - from mid-August to late September. Jerusalem artichoke as a honey plant is unproductive, gives nectar up to 30 kg / ha, among pea peas honey plants is important for preparing bees for wintering.
Annual honey plants
The main advantage of annuals - they do not hibernate or freeze. Bloom in summer or autumn, providing late summer bribes. The selection of grasses depends on the region, sowing is carried out early - simultaneously with spring ones.
Late honey plant, blooms from mid-summer to September. It is sown near apiaries, in the gardens. The first flowers bloom at 60-70 days after sowing. Herb honey productivity is low - 15 kg / ha.
The representative of the family Gubotsvetnye, grows along the stubble, on the edges and clearings, is considered a garden weed. The honey plant is spread in the European part of Russia, it blooms in July-September. The gills are a good melliferous plant; it allows you to collect 35-80 kg of nectar per hectare.
The annual is grown as a spice almost throughout the territory of Russia, wild species are found in the south of the country. The flowering period of the honey plant falls on June-July, the honey productivity is up to 500 kg / ha. Coriander honey of amber or light brown tones, has a medicinal-caramel flavor and a sharp spicy smell.
Field radish (wild)
A weed plant, common everywhere, propagates by self-sowing. The grass is suitable for feeding animals and people. Honey harvesting from the wild radish honey plant lasts from May to September, volumes reach 150 kg per hectare.
Species of the genus Bedrenets, spice, cultivated in the middle lane and in southern Russia. The flowering time of the honey plant is June, July, the productivity is 50 kg of honey per hectare.
Redhead Sowing campaign
The representative of the cabbage family, common in the European part of the Russian Federation, Siberia, the Caucasus, the Crimea. Grass Ryzhik blooms from April to June, as the honey plant is not very productive, it allows you to get 30 kg of honey per hectare.
Valuable oilseed, honey plant. Honey production per hectare is relatively small - up to 50 kg, but taking into account the areas sown, it is an effective honey plant. Flowering time is in July-August, in some areas provides the main collection. Sunflower honey is golden yellow with a faint aroma and delicate flavor, during crystallization it acquires a fine-grained texture.
It is eaten and used for medicinal purposes. Honey plant blooms from July to frost. Cucumber grass as a honey plant is very productive - it gives up to 300 kg of honey per hectare.
Honey medicinal herbs
Many medicinal herbs form quite extensive colonies in nature. In the absence of such, this deficiency can be replenished by sowing, while growing both medicinal raw materials and honey-bearing plants. They are characterized by long periods of flowering and a large amount of nectar secreted. Bee products obtained from these plants have high healing properties.
Perennial grass of the family Malvaceae, in Russia it grows in the European part, Eastern and Western Siberia, in the North Caucasus, the Volga region, Altai. The flowering period of honey plant covers July-August, allows you to collect 400 kg of nectar per hectare.
Perennial, growing on wet, well shaded areas. Flowering covers the period from June to September. The grass is characterized by high nectar production - often exceeding a ton per hectare.
Ammi Tooth (Vysnaga)
A biennial herbaceous plant, found in steppes, on dry slopes, litters crops. Honey is blooming all summer. With a hectare, you can get 800-1860 kg of honey.
Perennial spread everywhere. Flowering honey plant from the 2nd year, throughout the summer. Medoproduktivnost - up to 325 kg / ha. The product is endowed with the properties of Valerian, has a calming effect.
Presented by more than 15 species. It blooms from early summer to September. Excellent honey plant, with a hectare gives 200-300 kg of nectar.
Rezeda is odorous
It belongs to the number of first-class honey plants. Обладает высокой пыльцевой и нектарной продуктивностью. Цветет с мая по сентябрь. С одного гектара посева пчелы вырабатывают в среднем 400 кг меда.
It is found in the wild and cultivated by humans, used in cooking and medicine. As a melliferous plant, one of the best ones, it blooms for 3 weeks from the end of June, it releases up to 150 g of nectar from a plant. Arrangement of flowers provides bees with easy access to the nectaries, insects willingly visit it. Up to 400 kg of honey per hectare is obtained per hectare, and the daily profit for one hive reaches 8 kg per day. Pyagilovy honey belongs to the elite varieties.
Late honey plant, blooms from July to late September. Plant extract is widely used in conservative and traditional medicine. Nectar gives up to 130 k / ha.
Presented by more than 30 species, the most common medicinal and nutmeg. Honey plant blooms in May-June, medoproduktivnost depending on growing conditions varies from 130 to 400 kg.
Perennial herb, used in alternative medicine. It grows like a weed in damp places - on the banks of ponds, ditches, flood plains. The flowering period is May-September. Nectar productivity of continuous thickets is 30-180 kg / ha.
Biennial winter plant of the celery family. Area of distribution - meadows, forest glades, near housing and roads. Flowering time - from May to August. With hectare allows you to collect 60 kg of nectar.
Melissa officinalis (Lemon mint)
Perennial essential oil plant honey plant. Nectar bears from June to September. Melissa honey is transparent, belongs to the best varieties, has a delicate exquisite bouquet. For the season gives 150-200 kg of nectar per hectare.
Valuable early spring honey plant, supports the vital activity of bees after wintering. Nectar productivity - 20 kg / ha.
Silverweed goose (Goose foot, Gill)
Perennial family Pink, grows in wastelands, river banks, streams, ponds. It blooms from June to September. Medoproduktivnost - 40 kg per hectare.
Anise lofant (Multifowers)
Herb is cultivated as a medicinal raw material and spice. It blooms in the second year after sowing, from the second half of July to the end of September. Lofant - a highly productive melliferous plant, 1 hectare of plantings gives 400 kg of honey.Attention! The seeds of honey plants are sold most often as a mixture, which makes it possible to sow the land with the optimal number of crops necessary for effective honey collection.
Meadows that grow in flood meadows, marshes, in steppes and semi-deserts are listed as meadow honey plants. They are able to provide continuous honey collection throughout the season.
Field weed, common on meadows, forest edges, roadsides, blooms from June to August. Gives up to 130 kg / ha of thick, good quality honey.
Honey perennial, grows on the banks of reservoirs, glades, roadsides, in settlements. Geranium blooms in June-August, nectar productivity - 50-60 kg / ha.
Pyltsenos and the honey-bearing family of the Buttercup family, are found in mixed grass steppes and forest-steppes, in non-black-earth zones of the European part of Russia, in Western Siberia and in the Crimea. The grass blooms in May, allowing you to get 30 kg of honey per hectare.
The perennial grass grows like a weed everywhere, the flowering period lasts from May to August, the honey productivity is 300-400 kg / ha.
The weedy plant of the Astrovie family, grows everywhere. All representatives of this species are excellent honey plants. Flowering continues from June to autumn. Thistle honey - colorless or light amber, of high quality, harmonious taste, crystallizes slowly. One of the best honey plants, up to 400 kg of nectar can be obtained from a hectare of dense thickets of thistles.
A biennial weed plant of the Cabbage family. It grows in fields, meadows, pastures, along roads and ditches. The grass blooms all summer, the bees collect up to 180 kg of nectar per hectare. Honey from a colza pleasant on taste with weak aroma, greenish-yellow color.
Butcher (Milky grass, Swallow grass)
Perennial plant family Kutrovy, grows rapidly, blooms for 2-3 years. It grows in gardens, forest-steppes, abundant nectar bears during July-August. It is characterized by high medoproduktivnost, which ranges from 750 to 1000 kg per hectare. Honey from Vatochnika is thick and heavy, of high quality.
Low-growing creeping evergreen grass shrub family Kutrovye. It grows in forests, parks, in the territories of old estates. It blooms in April-June, may re-bloom in late July, August, September, depending on weather conditions. Periwinkle provides supporting honey in the hungry period of the year.
Weeds, grows in the fields, pastures, meadows, near roads. The flowering period - from July to September, provides supporting honey collection (up to 10 kg / ha), which is necessary for the autumn build-up of bees and replenishment of fodder stocks.
Honey plants of the Pumpkin family
Pumpkin cultures comprise about 900 species, among which are edible, ornamental, medicinal. In the summer, the bees visit gardens, vegetable gardens, household plots, and fields on which representatives of the Pumpkin family grow.Attention! These are rather modest honey plants, but with large areas of sowing they can provide a good harvest.
Annual plant, blooms from late July to late September. Bees collect nectar mainly from female flowers in the amount of 30 kg / ha.
Cucumber blooms from the end of June for two months, from 1 hectare get 10-30 kg of honey.
Flowering time is July-August; medoproductivity is low - 15-20 kg / ha.
It blooms in June and July, nectar gives 20-30 kg per hectare.
Horsetails that are good honey plants
Horsetails are a genus of perennials in the fern department, with up to 30 species. For agriculture it is a weed, some of its species are even poisonous. Despite the widespread and high survivability, horsetails are of no value to beekeeping. The plant does not bloom, but reproduces by spores, which means it does not emit either nectar or pollen.
Honey plants of spring and early summer
Productive beekeeping is impossible without ensuring continuous honey collection during the entire active season. By the time of flowering plants, honey plants are divided into early spring, early summer, summer, late summer and autumn. The very first, in April, the following melliferous plants bloom: Mother and Stepmother, Ryzhik, Periwinkle and Medunits. These herbs help the bees to recover and gain strength after wintering. In May, the period of flowering of honey plants of Volovik, Cumin, Adonis, Comfrey, Wild Radish, Sverbigi, Goat Meat, Rapeseed, Esparcet begins. They are characterized by high honey productivity.Important! In the summer, most of the honey plants that provide the main honey collection bloom in the summer - Buckwheat, Mustard, Melissa, Dyagil, Anis, Sinyushnik, Thistle, Geranium, Anis, Coriander.
Honey plants blooming in July
Many of the June honey plants continue to bloom in July. They are joined by Lavender, Mint, Zubchatka, Vatochnik, Lofant, Echinacea, Sunflower, Gill, Cornflower, Ivan-tea, Donnik. For beekeeping, a variety of herbal honey plants growing around is important. Weather performance is affected by weather conditions - temperature, humidity, lack of rain and wind. Most of the nectar plants emit in the first half of the flowering period.
A number of honey plants bloom all summer even without trimming - Volovik, Colza, Cumin, Comfrey, Reseda, Valerian, Ammi Tooth, Snyt, Donnik, Lucerne, Clover.
What honey plants bloom in August and September
Some honey plants bloom from mid-summer to late September, and sometimes to the first frost. Among them are Kotovnik, Kermek, Goldenrod, Bodyak, Hyssop, Sylphia, Dushitsa, Derbennik. They are important not only for the main honey collection, but also for the proper functioning and functioning of the bee family.
Autumn honey plants
If there are no late honey plants around the apiary, in late September and early October, the bees no longer leave the hive and consume feed reserves. Such a decrease in activity before the cold can adversely affect the results of wintering. Especially for bees, it is recommended to sow grass-honey plants Goldenrod, Jerusalem artichoke, Sill purple, Borage.
How to organize a honey plant for bees in the apiary
The main condition for productive beekeeping is to provide sufficient food for insects. Good bribes can be obtained if the following conditions are met:
- Arrays of highly productive herbal honey plants are located within the effective summer radius of the bees, not further than 3 km.
- The main honey plants are planted large areas.
- There is a species diversity of honey-bearing plants useful for beekeeping.
- The flowering time of the honey plant makes it possible to ensure continuous quality honey collection.
For the health of the bees, it is important to provide them with early spring support honey bribe necessary to build families for the main honey collection. Summer - the main bribe should be abundant and the beekeeper should take care of this in advance. The autumn honey harvest from the grass is declining in intensity, mostly aimed at preparing families for wintering.
Medonos - the most important component of the life of bees. A beekeeper should always know which honey plants are in the area, their flowering periods and the expected honey productivity. It is good if there are forest lands, fields, meadows sown with different grasses in the radius of summer. The sowing of honey plants allows you to adjust the volume and quality of honey collection at the stationary apiary.