Manchurian hazel is a short shrub (height does not exceed 3.5 m) is a type of Zimbold hazelnut. The variety is known from the end of the nineteenth century, introduced from Japan. In Russia, the culture is grown in the Far East, in Manchuria, the middle lane. Often there is Manchurian hazel in China on the edges of forests and mountain slopes. The plant is bred to produce fruits, practically not used for decorative purposes.
Description of Manchurian Hazel
This is a short (3-3.5 m), well-branched shrub consisting of several trunks. The branches are thick, reaching 15 cm in diameter. Young shoots of Manchu hazel covered with a small, soft fuzz. The trunk is a gray-brown bark with small cracks.
The leaves are small oblong egg-shaped at the edges with notches, soft. There are large up to 12 cm in length and 7 cm in width. Basically, the whole crown is covered with foliage of medium size: 5 cm long and 3 cm wide. The leaves are dark green, in the middle there is a rusty, orange or burgundy stain. In autumn, their color turns dark orange.
In the spring on the shoots of Manchu hazel appear earrings - male inflorescences, collected on 5 pieces on one handle. Their length can reach 14 cm. The inflorescences are covered with light beige sharp scales. Manchurian hazel blooms late for its kind - in the first decade of May.
Hazel is fruiting in September. Fruits on one bush a little. On one handle are attached 2-4 nuts.Important! The peculiarity of the fruit is that they are hidden in the stubby green crib, which forms the semblance of a tube in which there are nuts.
The nucleus is oval, rounded, 1.5-2 cm in length. The shell is thin, fragile, the fruits of Manchurian hazel can be eaten, they have a good nutty taste.
In nature, culture grows in the Far East of Russia, in the Chita region, Khabarovsk, Primorsky Krai, in the central regions. Abroad Manchurian hazel can be found in China, Japan, Korea. The shrub grows on the edges of coniferous and deciduous forests, the tops of mountain slopes, on open forest glades. At the places of felling or burning forest forms thick vegetation.
Manchurian bream is used to produce fruits. Their collection is difficult due to solid bristly pluses. It is also planted for gardening hills and ravines, landings, deforestation sites. This culture is fast-growing, covers the scorched forest edges and fields.
In cities used for landscaping parks and alleys. In the gardens are planted as hedges. Thanks to strong wide shoots and large leaves, hazel forms dense impenetrable thickets.
Planting and care for Manchurian hazel
Crops are planted in early spring before the movement of juices or in late autumn after harvest, a month before the onset of the first frost. Experts recommend autumn planting. It allows you to temper the Manchurian hazel in winter. Next spring you can get a strong, well-rooted plant.
Site selection and preparation
Hazel planted in the southern or western part of the site, protected from the winds. The place should be well lit or be in the penumbra. The main thing is that groundwater does not lie closer than 2 m to the surface of the earth. Well planted shrubs near buildings that protect it from drafts. It is impossible to plant hazel in the lowlands, where meltwater accumulates in the spring. Tall shrubs and trees should be 5 m from the forest.
The soil is better to choose loose, fertilized, slightly acidic. For planting hazel will not be suitable marshy or clay soils.Important! Before rooting the seedling area must be carefully dig.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
For planting choose tall plants with strong shoots. Leaves on them should be as small as possible, the roots are long, well branched. Seedlings are well purchased in the nursery. Wild plants do not cultivate well and give a weak crop. The roots of a good seedling have a length of about 0.5 m, before planting, shorten them by half.
3-4 weeks before planting the hazel they dig a hole about 50 cm in diameter, let the soil sit. After the bottom pour a fertile mixture: soil, humus, manure in equal parts. 400 g of wood ash and a glass of superphosphate are added to the mixture.
The following landing algorithm follows:
- In the center of the pit it is necessary to form an earthen room.
- Place the roots on top of it, straightening processes.
- Next to the shrub to drive a peg, to bind him to the stem of the plant.
- After the pit is covered with loose earth and rammed it.
At the end of planting a bush should be poured 2-3 buckets of water. The soil around the trunk within a radius of 1-2 m must be filled with sawdust or covered with spruce.
In the summer, 2-3 times a month, hazel is watered with 10 liters of water. A few days after watering the soil must be loosened to ensure air access to the rhizome. After watering, the trunk circle must be covered with mulch.
Manchurian Hazel is not afraid of cold weather; it can tolerate frost up to - 45 ° С. It grows well in the northern regions, in Siberia. There it is used as a nut and decorative culture. She, one of the few, easily endures the harsh local winters.
The fruits of Manchurian hazel begin to collect in mid-September. If the maturation conditions were favorable, up to 3 kg of crop can be obtained from one bush. The collection is hampered by the specific structure of the nut. People work in gloves because of the spiny, bristly clump that easily hurts the skin. Therefore, they harvest manchurian hazel in limited quantities. Commercially, the species is not grown.
The characteristics of each variety of hazel can be preserved only with vegetative propagation.
In agrotechnology of the Manchurian hazel, other types of breeding are used:
- division of the bush.
The easiest way is to breed nuts, but it does not guarantee the preservation of the variety. For seeding using well ripened kernels. They are planted in the fall in a well-dug, fertilized soil to a depth of 5 cm. The distance between seedlings is 10 cm. The seeds are sprinkled on top of the humus. After wintering in the snow, the first seedlings will emerge in the spring.
In the fall, after harvesting, part of the shrub is pruned as close to the ground as possible. In this place will begin to form the layouts. In the spring, they are bent and placed in prepared shallow grooves, fixed with metal brackets. Place the fold neatly incised. Exterior thin ends of the bush attached vertically to the support. Their length should be at least 10 cm. Saplings by layering are grown for about 2 years. After they are disconnected from the parent bush and rooted separately. This method is long and laborious, but it allows to preserve the species qualities of the plant.
When dividing, the mother bush is cut to the root so that each new plant has several processes and a well-developed rhizome. Before planting, the root processes are shortened to 25 cm. Each new bush of Manchurian hazel is rooted according to the planting algorithm.
Diseases and pests
Manchurian hazelnut often suffers from nut-weevil attacks. If the hazelnut stands are old, the probability of occurrence of this pest increases several times. In this case, you can lose 80% of the crop. In the event of a nut weevil, 3-4 treatments of the garden with chemicals (insecticides) are carried out during the growing season.
Manchurian hazel is not susceptible to the main diseases of nut crops. Rarely can suffer from fungal infections. When the first signs of the disease appear: white or rusty twisted leaves, their wilting and falling off for no apparent reason, it is necessary to spray the hazelwood with fungicides.Important! Particularly dangerous for Manchurian hazel stem rot.
It can be under the bark of a plant for a long time, without showing anything. In this case, the shrub begins to slowly fade for no apparent reason. Looking closely at the hazel bark, you can find small bumps and grooves covered with brown or rusty patina. At the first signs of a lesion, the shrub is treated with Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides.
Manchurian Hazel is a cold-resistant, unpretentious plant that is well suited for growing in the northern regions. Hazel tolerates snowless winters and severe frosts. At the same time, a sharp decrease in temperature does not affect the crop yield. The main drawback of hazelnut of this species is the structure of the nut, which is difficult to extract from a strong prickly film.