Planting walnut walnut autumn interests gardeners of the south and middle zone. Even Siberian gardeners have learned how to grow a thermophilic culture. Optimal for growing walnuts are 5 and 6 climatic zones. In zone 4, which includes most of the Moscow region gardens, trees need to create suitable conditions for growth.
When to plant a walnut: spring or autumn
Opinions of gardeners regarding the timing of planting walnut seeds diverge. Some people like to plant in the fall, others do it in the spring. Supporters of the autumn plantings argue that the germination of walnut seeds lasts 1 year.
Because of this, when planting in spring, the percentage of germination is lower. Seeds planted in October undergo a natural stratification over the winter. When spring planting walnut seeds, it must be carried out artificially.
It follows from practice that in regions with short winters it is preferable to plant walnut seeds before winter. This is practiced by gardeners of Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus, southern Russia. Where winters are long, in spring snow melts for a long time, walnut seeds should be planted in spring. The probability of their rotting during spring planting is much lower.
How to plant a walnut in the fall
Before buying walnut seedlings you need to assess the size of your garden, cottage. Fruit tree requires a large area of nutrition. In adulthood, his crown reaches an impressive size. Its projection on the ground comes to 25 m².
Walnut tree can grow in the garden for more than one hundred years. It is undemanding to the structure and composition of the soil, can grow on sandy and loamy soils. A walnut seedling, planted in neutral soil with a pH value of 5.5-5.8, is well established.
When planning planting a nut seedling, it is necessary to take into account factors that directly affect the yield:
- it is influenced by the level of illumination, so seedlings are recommended to be planted in the sunniest place;
- winter winds have a negative impact, so in the conditions of the garden (cottage) walnut are advised to plant on the south side of the house, fence, other garden trees;
- Walnut cross-pollination increases productivity; therefore, it is good to have several fruit trees in the garden.
How to plant a walnut sapling in autumn
Walnut pits are dug in during the summer months. Before planting in the fall should pass about 1 month. It is recommended to dig a hole with a spade, and not with a drill, its optimum depth is 70 cm. It is more convenient to plant seedlings in a square hole with sides of 60 cm.
In addition to fertile soil, to refuel the pit you need to prepare:
- Ammofoska fertilizer (for 1 planting hole - 1 kg);
- fresh manure, 50% composed of straw;
- humus 5-6-year-old (1.5 buckets on 1 planting hole).
Fertilizer need to pour a compact slide on the bottom in the center of the pit. Powder it with fertile soil mixed with humus in a layer of 20 cm. "Ammophoska" will feed the young tree with phosphorus for 7-8 years.
Infertile soil excavated when digging a hole should be left on the surface. It is necessary for the formation of a high roller around the landing hole. Seedling need to put in the center of the pit. Roots fall asleep fertile garden soil. Check that the root neck after filling with soil was at ground level.
From the north (northwest) side of the seedling it is necessary to drive a high stake (3 m). To tie him in two places trunk, use only soft mating. Barrel fastened to the stake with a knot of eight. Place a roller around 25-30 cm high around the hole with barren soil. Cover the entire area around the trunk with manure. The optimum layer thickness is 25 cm. Leave a small gap between the manure and the barrel.
Under walnut seedling pour at least 6 buckets of water. Mulching of the near-barking circle with manure has many positive points:
- in the winter serves as protection against frost penetration;
- in the heat protects against overheating;
- during the warm season reduces the evaporation of moisture.
Planting walnut seeds in the fall
If in September, managed to get fresh walnut seeds, in the fall, you can plant them in the ground. The largest specimens are selected, on which no damage is visible and the green peel is easily separated.Comment! Seeds for propagation are suitable for fruit from a tree growing in the same region as the future garden.
When planting nuts in the fall, the process of preparing planting material is simple. Fruits are peeled from green peel, dried for 2 days in the sun. In late October, proceed to landing. Seeds are planted in rows on a ridge prepared in advance or in holes of 3-4 pieces. The soil is prepared: they dig it in, add humus, ash, superphosphate.
When planting fruits in an ordinary way adhere to the scheme 25 x 90 cm. 4 wells are planted in holes 30 cm in diameter. Fruits lay sideways, on the edge. In the spring, on one side, the stem is pecked and begins to grow up, and on the other side, the roots appear.
In the ground, seeds of medium size are buried by 9 cm, larger ones - by 10 cm. The approximate thickness of the layer of earth should be equal to the diameter of the fruit multiplied by 3. The ridge during the autumn planting is not watered. Cover the entire surface with mulch. Usually use fallen leaves. They are poured with a layer of 20-25 cm. In May shoots will appear.
Advantages of autumn planting:
- seeds do not need stratification;
- shoots appear in spring;
- after winter there is a lot of moisture in the soil, it speeds up the rooting process;
- seedlings planted in the fall, stronger, they develop faster than those planted in the spring.
Walnut transplant in the fall to a new place
In the fall, they are engaged in transplanting annual walnut seedlings into a greenhouse (shkolka). There they grow for 2-3 years, then planted in the garden. With a small size of the shkolki seedlings are allowed to plant often, keeping between them an interval of 15 cm.
Important! Walnut is advised to be planted 5-10 m from other fruit trees.
With a dense planting, walnut seedlings grow 1 year. Transplanted to a permanent place at 2 years of age. Growing seedlings with a tight fit will overshadow each other. The wood will ripen more slowly, it will reduce the frost resistance of walnut seedlings.
Seedlings are transplanted with a lump of earth, trying not to damage the taproot. Its length at the time of transplantation should be 35-40 cm. The varietal properties of walnut seedlings are rarely preserved, therefore, most often they are used as a stock.
Inoculate with cuttings taken from a young fruiting tree, or eyes (budding). Grafted seedlings enter fruiting after 4-8 years. The better the care, the earlier the walnut produces fruit.
Departure after landing
Caring for plants in the school is simple. It comes down to watering, loosening between the rows, removing weeds. Grown seedlings (1-2-year-olds) are transplanted into the garden. Choose the strongest. For mature trees care is minimal. Walnut saplings require special attention after their transplantation to a permanent place (1-2 years).
Formative and sanitary pruning of the crown is carried out in early spring, when the positive temperature is set (4-5 ° C). You need to do it before the start of sap flow. With a lack of moisture (there was little snow, there was no rain in the spring) in April, water-charging irrigation is carried out. At the same time, the revision of the trunk and skeletal branches is carried out:
- remove pieces of dead bark;
- wounds are washed with blue vitriol (3%);
- bleach trunk and large branches.
In April, the crown is treated for pests and diseases. Until the buds open, young trees are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquids. He or copper sulphate sprayed the ground in the near-barring circle. In May, spend root feeding ammonium nitrate. It needs trees older than 3 years.
During the summer under the fruiting walnut contribute:
- ammonium sulfate - 10 kg;
- ammonium nitrate - 6 kg;
- superphosphate - 10 kg;
- potassium salt - 3 kg.
Basic summer care is reduced to watering. In summer, walnuts require a lot of moisture. Trees are watered every 2 weeks. The top layer of soil in the near-ground circle after irrigation does not loosen. Water the trees for 3 months, starting in May.
Water consumption - 40 l / m². Watering is stopped in August. In late autumn, the last watering is carried out - moisture-loading. It increases the frost resistance of wood. For the prevention of fungal diseases of walnuts and protection from pests, the earth around the tree is kept clean. All summer weeds are removed.
Walnut fruit is harvested from late summer to October. After leaf fall, the crown is treated for diseases with copper sulfate (1%). Before frost, young saplings begin to prepare for winter:
- winding the trunk and branches covering material or burlap;
- the ground around the trunk is covered with mulch, using dung or straw.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
According to experienced gardeners, the first formative pruning should be carried out after the walnut seedlings grow to 1.5 m:
- The height of their trunk will be about 0.9 m;
- crown height - approximately 0.6 m.
A walnut seedling leaves no more than 10 strong shoots, and the weak are cut. All remaining branches are shortened by 20 cm. In old trees, a crown is thinned in the spring. This stimulates lateral branching.Andrei Vyacheslavovich, 42 years old, Minsk RegionSeedlings grown from fruit. He took them from his brother living in Brest. He has 3 fruit bearing trees. Last year my trees turned 2 years old, transplanted them to a new place. On the advice of his brother in the pit (at the bottom) put pieces of flat slate. In his opinion, this is done so that the roots of the nut grow to the side, and not deeper. This year the trees have blossomed. Olga Aleksandrovna, 37 years old, Grodno region. You do not need to dig up frozen trees in winter. We have one frozen, we cut it, leaving a small stump. From him went new shoots. Now it is a huge, fruitful tree. Marina Olegovna, 47 years old, Belarus. Seedlings who have given a weak growth for the year, stimulating with manure I have goats on the farm, so there are no problems with it. In winter, towards the end of January, I lay it around the weak tree in a ring so that the manure does not touch the trunk. I put it in a layer of 15 cm thick. I don't loosen the circle around my barrel. After such feeding, the seedling becomes stronger, gives a good growth for the season. I cut the crown of young trees only once, leaving a central shoot and 4 strong branches. Do not touch her anymore.
Planting a walnut walnut in the fall is one of the most common breeding options for a crop. To receive seedlings takes at least 2 years. In the central and middle zone of Russia, it is worth growing varieties with good cold-resistance rates, early ripening, such as: