A real gardener will definitely try to grow hazelnuts from a nut. Its fruit is considered the most nutritious. And the presence of useful properties of hazelnuts is second only to walnuts. By following the rules of agrotechnology for growing hazelnuts, and following the advice of experienced gardeners, you can grow the desired fruit in your area.
Is it possible to grow hazelnuts from walnut
On an industrial scale, hazelnuts are not grown in Russia. Although there is nothing difficult to grow it in the middle lane and southern regions of the country. If you decide to grow hazelnuts from the nut in the country, you need to know some of the rules of planting and stick to them.
The peculiarity of such planting is that the harvest of hazelnut fruits grown from seeds can be collected not for 3-5 years, as in trees grown from seedlings, but for 6 years or later. Varietal features may also not appear in this case. And this must be taken into account. Therefore, the seed method is more often used by breeders for breeding new hazel qualities.Comment! Experienced gardeners say that seeds can grow only selected forms of hazelnuts. Hybrid forms should be propagated vegetatively.
Features of the germination of hazelnuts
To grow hazelnut from a nut at home, you need to select large, well-ripened fruits. After the seedlings grow from them, further reproduction should be carried out vegetatively.
Hazelnut has male and female flowers. But he cannot pollinate himself because they bloom at different times. For pollination to occur and ovaries appear, 2-3 varieties of hazelnuts should be grown on the site, the flowering of which coincides with each other’s pollination.
How to plant hazelnuts from walnut
There are several ways you can grow hazelnuts. The way nuts - the easiest. Carry it out in spring or autumn. Autumn planting hazelnuts from the walnut should be done about a month before frost and snow. Planting seeds at the rate of 50 nuts per 1 square. m, recessed into the soil by 7-8 cm.
If, for any reason, planting hazelnut seeds in the open ground did not work out in the fall, then before spring planting, the nuts must be stratified to improve germination.
To grow hazelnut, plant seeds can be both in seedlings and in open ground. If, after stratification, shoots turned out to be rare or not at all, you should wait until next spring. The nuts may not have undergone the necessary stratification, and this will happen in winter.
Selection of planting material
To select the nuts should be in September and October. Fruits for planting should be well ripened, whole, without any damage by pests. It is recommended to inspect each nut. They should not smell mildew.
In the market you can hardly find the necessary planting material. Buy it better in horticultural farms or nurseries. You can borrow from the garden of a familiar gardener who raised the hazel tree on his own.
In autumn, before planting seeds in the ground, it is desirable to process the fruits with kerosene against rodents.
Before spring sowing, seeds should be stratified within 3-4 months. The order of the following:
- Nuts are soaked in water for 5 days.
- In a container (a wooden box or a plastic bucket) alternately pour a layer of wet sand and nuts, thus mixing the nuts with sand.
- The container is taken out to the room in which the temperature is within + 2 ... +50WITH.
- Periodically check the condition of the nuts, mix them with sand 1 time in 10-15 days.
The ratio of sand and nuts should be 3: 1. In the tank must be openings for oxygen.Attention! If the seeds began to germinate too quickly, they should be moved to a colder place, only so that the sand does not freeze and the nuts do not die.
The filbert is unpretentious to a condition of soil. It can grow on different types of soil. The main thing is that these soils are not too clay, marshy, saline and dry sandy. If the groundwater passes above 1.2 m below the ground, then there is the likelihood of the hazelnut root system decay.
Grow hazelnuts equally easy on the plain and on the slopes. It is specially planted to stop soil corrosion. If the soil is infertile, then its composition can be corrected by introducing the missing elements in advance: slaked lime or wood ash is added to too acidic soils, chernozem is mixed with compost and sand.
The place is chosen without drafts with good sunlight, but not the south side. When exposed to the spring sun, the buds will quickly grow in the spring, and then die in returnable frosts.
How to plant hazelnuts from nut to seedlings
In the spring after a 4-month stratification, when the nuts began to germinate, they should be transplanted in pots or in a box for seedlings. Landing rules usual:
- Prepare a wooden box or pots.
- Pour fertile composition of sand, humus and earth.
- Make a recess of 6-7 cm.
- Put nuts in them on one side, as germination occurs through the nose of the fruit.
- Fall asleep and watered.
- Cover with foil and put for several days in a warm place.
Sow seeds on seedlings in rows with a distance between nuts of 8-10 cm, between rows - 35 cm. In such a case, the seedlings will not interfere with each other.
How to plant hazelnuts from walnut to open ground
Nuts are planted in open ground in the fall one month before the snow falls or in the spring, into the already warmed up and previously dug earth. Spring planting spend nuts that have passed the stratification. The algorithm in both cases is the same:
- Make the groove, the depth of the width of the palm.
- Put nuts on one side at a distance of about 8 cm from each other, if you plan to grow them in this place to 2 years of age. If this place is intended for 3 years of life of the seedling, then the distance should be greater.
- Sprinkle nuts on the ground by about 1-2 cm.
- Watered with water immediately after planting and repeat a week later.
- Cover with a film to create a greenhouse effect.
In the spring, the film is periodically removed for ventilation and cleaned completely as unnecessary.
Hazelnut seedlings, which were grown in pots of seeds, are planted in open ground, given that the distance between them should be about 5 m, as the hazel grows wide.
Care for young seedlings
A year after the planting of nuts, young seedlings grow about 15 cm high and with a stem thickness of 3 mm. In this case, they can already be transplanted to a permanent place. If the seedlings have not reached such sizes and look weak, then it is better to transfer the transplant to the next year.
To grow hazelnuts from the nut at home, you need to carry out appropriate care for seedlings, which includes:
- regular watering;
- prevention against pests and diseases.
Weeding and Mulching
To control weeds that grow during the growing season, the soil in the tree circle is loosened several times during the growing season for the first 5-6 years. It is necessary to loosen the soil in the near-wheel circle to a depth of 5-7 cm, not more, since the bulk of the occurrence of the roots falls to a depth of 20 cm of soil. Pristvolny circle should be not less than the diameter of the crown.
After the age of fruiting, the soil is loosened in the near-circle circle, in order not to injure closely-spaced roots and not disrupt the process of fruit ripening.
Further, the ground is mulched with dry grass, wood chips or other mulch, which protects the tree trunk from weathering, drying out, and freezing.
Watering and feeding
Hazelnut is known as a moisture-loving plant. Its fruiting largely depends on the provision of water. But an overabundance of moisture can cause the tree to grow sick and weak.
In dry climates, hazel should be watered regularly, at least 1-2 times a week. In the Moscow region, it is enough 1-2 times a month in the spring-autumn period and 3-4 times a month in the summer. Hazel loves irrigation, which almost doubles its yield. To grow hazelnuts, one tree per year must receive 750 mm of rain. Based on this, you can calculate how much water to water hazelnuts, if you subtract from this natural precipitation.
From the moment the tree began to bear fruit, 1-2 buckets of organic fertilizers (humus) are brought under each hazel tree annually. Urea is added during fruit set. In the autumn, it will be useful to pour in wood ash in a tree trunk.Important! If the soil is fertile, then to apply nitrogen fertilizers during the growing season is not recommended. Otherwise, the plant will actively grow, but the fruiting will decrease significantly.
Trimming and shaping
Hazelnut pruning is carried out with the same purpose as for other crops. It allows you to grow a tree with given indicators, to regulate growth, development, fruiting, life expectancy, yield.
Thinning bushes creates a bright, well-lit crown. It stimulates the growth of young shoots with fruit buds.
The first pruning is done after planting the seedling. Pruning of branches depends on the root system - the thinner the roots are, the less branches and leaves need to be cut. Conversely, the smaller the thin roots, the stronger the pruning should be. This will help grow a strong root system.
Forming pruning hazelnuts are of two types: under the tree and under the type of bushes. Sanitary often carried out in the spring to remove the diseased, frozen and dry branches. Rejuvenating pruning make hazelnuts after the age of 15-20 years.
Protection against diseases and pests
Hazelnut is a resistant crop against diseases and pests. Gardeners noted that the tree becomes susceptible to fungal diseases, if it grows up in a wetland or it is watered abundantly. In this case, you have to fight infectious diseases.
The main pests attacking hazelnuts are:
- mouse-like rodents;
- spotted woodpeckers;
The most dangerous hazelnuts are considered to be nut weevil and walnut barbel. Against the weevil, soil digging, harvesting of affected fruit, spraying the tree before beetle egg laying are used. To combat the barbel treat hazelnuts with a 1% solution of colloidal sulfur.
For the purpose of prophylaxis, in the autumn after the leaf fall, all fallen leaves are collected and burned. Then dig up the earth under a tree. Also, in order to grow healthy hazelnuts, it is necessary to process it 2 times a year with special fungicides and insecticides, which will relieve you from unnecessary trouble in diseases.
Preparing for the winter
Young plants cover the first 2-3 years for the winter with covering material so that they do not freeze out. Further, hazelnuts do not require shelter for the onset of cold weather. It must be remembered that one should not make abundant nitrogen fertilizers and water hazelnuts in late summer and autumn. Otherwise, the young shoots will begin to grow in large numbers, will not have time to lumber to the loss of snow and freeze.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
Before proceeding with the cultivation of hazelnuts from the nut at home, you should familiarize yourself with the experience of those who have already done so in their area. Here are some tips for successful hazelnut cultivation:
- Planting wild hazel in your garden is not worth it - it gives small fruits. But to use the hazel to grow hazelnuts, you can. To do this, plant on it a fruitful variety of hazelnuts.
- Planting hazelnuts is better in the fall. This culture has a short dormant period, so when spring planting most of the seedlings do not take root.
- Do not get involved in fertilizer soil. Too rich black soil will stimulate the growth of branches and leaves, which will reduce the yield of hazelnuts.
- For successful weed control, you can grow some crops under the hazelnut tree, for example, cereals, vegetables, grass.
Gardener's advice, which they share with each other, often helps not to repeat their mistakes.
Growing hazelnuts from a nut is a dream of a truly keen amateur gardener. Having a healthy, tasty, nutritious nut, giving a rich harvest, is an excellent reward for your efforts to care for hazelnuts. And it can be obtained, only it is necessary to have patience - the hazelnut fruits from the seeds can appear only after 10 years.