Being the second most popular melon crop after a watermelon, the melon is even the first in the mind and taste preferences of many people. Because it has a delicate honey flavor and a unique aroma. Melon varieties are very numerous, only in Russia about 100 items have been zoned. Even for the harsh conditions of the Urals and Siberia, breeders have now bred a lot of varieties that are able to successfully bear fruit, including in open ground.
Varieties of melons
With all the variety of melons, there are only two main subgroups, into which all plants of this species are divided:
- classical or cultural;
For gastronomic purposes, the values are representative only of the first subgroup. Since the second subgroup includes melons of the most varied forms and colors, but their taste can be called neutral at best. And sometimes they are frankly sour or bitter. Most often, they are used either for medicinal purposes, or as a basis for breeding work, in order to lead cultural representatives with resistance to one or another environmental property.
The cultural group is also quite numerous in its composition. Its fruits can be very diverse. They differ in color - they are yellow, orange, green, almost white, green-brown.
The skin pattern can also be quite varied. Many varieties of melons have a smooth surface, while others differ in a pattern in the form of a grid, while some are characterized by a wrinkled or warty skin.
The shape can be round, oval, pear-shaped or highly elongated. Size varies from a few hundred grams to several tens of kilograms. Melon fruits are known that reach 100 kilograms or more by weight.
By origin distinguish:
- Central Asian (Gulyabi, Ich-kzyl, Bukhara);
- Western European (Cantalupa);
- Eastern European (kolkhoznitsa, Altai, Early);
- Asian varieties of melons (Kassaba).
Further, the article presents a variety of melons with photos and a description of the characteristics of their cultivation in different regions of Russia.
What kind of melon is better
If you want to grow a melon in a particular region, the choice of a suitable variety can be decisive for this crop. It is impossible to say unequivocally whether one sort of melon will be better or worse than the other. Much depends on the climatic and weather conditions of the environment.
So many representatives of Asian melons, despite their unique sweetness and aroma, simply will not be able to bear fruit in other regions. Even if for them to carry out a full and competent care, protecting them from diseases, pests and adverse environmental conditions, the wrong choice of varieties will necessarily affect fruiting. Plants can even grow and bear some fruit, but it will be almost impossible to wait for the unique taste inherent in their homeland. And the yield, most likely, will not correspond to the varietal characteristics.
But the fruits of zoned melons, although they will be smaller in size, but in terms of sweetness and flavor, may not be inferior to many southern varieties.
What varieties of melons are best grown in the suburbs
It is quite a real task to grow melon fruits that are quite decent in taste under conditions of the Central Belt in general, in particular in the Moscow region in particular. It is only necessary to remember two basic conditions, the fulfillment of which will inevitably lead to the goal:
- compliance with the right agrotechnology;
- selection of the most suitable variety.
It is the second task that will be consecrated in detail in this chapter.
So, the melon grows well with an abundance of sunlight, a sufficient amount of heat, low humidity. Unfortunately, all these conditions are not always easy to meet in the conditions of the Moscow region. Even if you grow the fruit in greenhouses or greenhouses, the humidity in them sometimes reaches 90-100%. And for a melon, the upper mark of humidity, at which it still feels good about itself, is the figure of 60-65%. And the increased humidity produces, above all, practically uncontrollable outbreaks of various fungal diseases.
Fortunately, the breeders bred a lot of varieties and hybrids of melons, which are particularly adaptable to the open ground of the Moscow region. When self-selecting a suitable variety, special attention should be paid to the following characteristics:
- increased shade tolerance;
- resistance to lack of heat and temperature extremes;
- short growing season, preferably up to 90 days;
- increased resistance to fungal diseases.
With a great desire to grow late-ripening varieties with a growing season of more than 90 days, they must be grown using the seedling method.Tip! When sowing seeds in mid-late April, seedlings should be placed in the open ground no earlier than the beginning of June.
Currently, many seed companies are developing new varieties and melon hybrids, adapted to the conditions of growth in the Middle Belt. When choosing varieties, you should also take a closer look at those of them whose variety testing stations are located in the region. Of the most famous companies that test their melons in the Moscow region, you can call "SeDeK" and "Gavrish." The best varieties of melons, most adapted for growing in central Russia, are described below.
This early ripe variety was bred by Cedek company specialists. Small bright yellow oval fruits reach a weight of 1 kg. They ripen on average for 65-70 days and have a delicate yellow-green flesh. The variety is well resisted by a variety of weather problems peculiar to the weather conditions of the Middle Band. The main advantage of Alina melon is a high complex resistance to most diseases characteristic of melons and gourds.
This hybrid has quite long and powerful shoots. Fruits are medium-sized, round shape. The peel is divided into pronounced yellowish-green segments, which are separated by cream-gray stripes. There is also a pattern in the form of a fractured mesh. The peel is thin, juicy pulp has an average thickness. The variety is mid-season, the taste is sweet, it has a strong melon flavor. Disease resistance is good. Productivity - up to 10 kg / sq. m. Fruits can be stored for up to 8-10 days.
One of the oldest and most popular varieties of melons throughout Russia. It refers more to mid-season because it needs about 90 days to fully mature. Forms medium sized round fruits, sometimes up to 1.5 kg in weight. Melon flesh is very juicy, oily with a pronounced aroma and full flavor. Fruits are suitable for transportation and stored up to 3 weeks. But plants are subject to certain diseases, in particular, powdery mildew and anthracnose.
A relatively new hybrid from Sedek is plants that have high adaptability to the difficult weather conditions of the Moscow region. Melons ripen in 60-70 days. Resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew. They have a round shape with smooth bright yellow skin and delicate juicy flesh. By weight reach 1.5-1.6 kg. On one bush can ripen to 5-6 high-grade fruits of high quality.
Another representative of the family of "princesses". Belongs to the middle-early hybrids, the fruits can ripen from 70 to 90 days. Highly resistant to various adverse growth conditions, including various diseases. The variety is listed in the State Register and recommended for cultivation even in the North and North-West regions of Russia. Fruits have an attractive whitish cream color. The flesh is juicy, but has a dense, crunchy structure. The weight of one melon can reach 2 kg. The average yield is 6.5 kg / sq. mComment! There are quite a few other representatives in the “Princess” series, and all of them demonstrate a high adaptability to unfavorable growth conditions in combination with good fruit quality.
This unique melon hybrid was created by Gavrish specialists in 2012. It is zoned throughout Russia and, despite its exotic appearance, can be successfully grown in the Moscow region.
In terms of ripening it can be attributed to the early maturing. Tiger forms very small fruits, weighing 100-200 g. They are rounded in shape, with a smooth and thin skin without a grid. The pattern on the peel looks very attractive - brownish spots of various shapes and sizes are scattered on a pale yellow background. The aroma of the fruit is not very intense. But the taste of white juicy pulp deserves the most positive characteristics. The yield under the film covers is about 4 kg / sq. m
This variety is classified as medium ripening, it needs almost 90 days to ripen. But in taste and flavor, it can compete with Asian melon varieties. Fruits can be round or slightly oval with an orange smooth skin without a pattern. The mass of one melon reaches 1 kg. Well transported and stored for up to 3 weeks in the cool. It exhibits excellent disease resistance.
The best varieties of melons for the Urals
The Ural region, especially its southern part, is characterized by more stable weather conditions than the Moscow region. Although summer comes there a little later, but it can be hotter and dry. Therefore, for the Urals, there are several zoned melon varieties that ripen not in the earliest periods. But when using the seedling method and film shelters, they can please with abundant fruiting and great taste and aromas of fruits.
This variety, created more than 10 years ago, thanks to its early ripeness, conquered the expanses of almost all of Russia. Fruits are able to ripen in 60-70 days from the moment of emergence of shoots. Variety of melon classic yellow shade. Oval-shaped fruits grow to 1.2 to 2.2 kg. The sugar content can reach 9.3%, which is very good for such an early variety. Cinderella is resistant to both low and high air temperatures. Cannot be transported, but can be stored for up to 15 days in suitable conditions.
Another completely new early ripe melon variety, which is recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Although the fruits are small (up to 600 g), they have excellent taste characteristics. Melon round, light yellow with a fine mesh on the surface of the peel. The flesh is yellowish-whitish, crumbly. Productivity is small - up to 1.5 kg / sq. m. The variety is resistant to all adverse conditions.
The variety is middle-ripened, zoned in the Ural region. Oval fruits have a yellow-green color. The peel is covered with a grid of medium thickness. The mass of melon can reach 2.6 kg. The flesh is sweet, has a rather thick layer, soft and oily with a pronounced melon flavor. Well transported. The variety is resistant to fusarium and powdery mildew.
This mid-season variety is distinguished by its particular endurance and resistance to stressful conditions. Perhaps that is why it is zoned for the Ural region, despite the fact that it was bred in the Krasnodar Territory. Fruits are standard oval-round. On the peel there is a solid thick mesh. Juicy and sweet pulp occupies most of the fruit space, the seed nest is small. Fruits can weigh up to 2.2 kg. By yield, Temryuchanka surpasses such varieties as Golden and Kazachka. Not bad stored (up to 30 days) and transported.
This hybrid of melon, despite its French origin, is zoned in several Russian regions, including the Urals. In terms of ripening, it occupies an intermediate position between mid-season and middle-late melons. Melons ripen between 68 and 100 days since the emergence of shoots.
Yellow fruits have an oval shape with a slightly wrinkled skin and can reach a mass of 4 kg. The flesh has a creamy hue, the sugar content in the fruit is medium, about 5-6%. The variety is resistant to Fusarium and can last up to 60 days after harvest.
The best varieties of melons for Siberia
The Siberian region is characterized, first of all, by a short summer period. Although the average temperature level can even exceed the same in the middle zone. Therefore, it is extremely important for Siberia to use early ripening varieties of melons and those that have been specially bred for this region.Attention! You should not experiment and plant varieties and hybrids of imported melon in Siberia. They are likely to be susceptible to diseases and will not be able to give a full harvest.
One of the oldest grades of melon, bred back in 1937 especially for Siberian conditions and officially zoned in the Urals, in Western and Eastern Siberia in 1955. Altai is distinguished by early ripeness - the fruits ripen after 65-75 days of vegetation. The variety has beautiful elongated-oval fruits of a yellowish shade, which weigh from 0.8 to 1.5 kg. At the same time, the pulp is very fragrant, it is distinguished by a soft orange color, but not very sweet.
The variety can be consumed mostly fresh, since it is poorly stored and transported. The yield is quite decent - up to 25 t / ha.
The variety is also bred specifically for Siberia. Differs early ripeness (58-65 days of growing season) and good yield (up to 27 t / ha). Plants form short lashes. The light yellow smooth fruits of this sort of melon are round. The size of the fruit is small (600-800 g). The flesh is not distinguished by great juiciness and tenderness, but the taste is quite good, and the aroma is strong, melon.
This variety was bred in the Astrakhan region, but zoned for the East-Siberian region. Rounded beige-yellow fruits with a mesh pattern on the peel ripen at 66-75 days after germination. They have a moderate aroma, but the taste is already close to the reference. This is due to the high content of sugars (up to 7.8%) and soft, melting in the mouth pulp. By weight, the fruits reach 1.5-2 kg. The yield of Lolita slightly exceeds the collective farm, which is also quite possible to grow in this region.
The variety belongs to the ultra-fast. When sowing dry seeds into the ground in the last days of May, the first ripe fruits can be harvested from the second half of August. Moreover, the yield of Lyubushka can be up to 7-8 fruits from a plant. When grown without watering on average, the fruit grows to 800 g. Melons have an intensely yellow peel color, practically no netting, greenish flesh and excellent taste.
This variety was also bred specifically for Siberia. Despite the fact that it differs in the average ripening period (about 75-80 days), the taste qualities of the fruit deserve to tinker with the seedlings.Tip! In regions with naughty weather conditions, in order to get a harvest, experienced gardeners recommend planting several varieties of melons at once.
This relatively new melon hybrid was developed by Gavrish specialists and recommended for cultivation throughout Russia. It belongs to the early ripening - ripens in 60-75 days of vegetation. The fruits are oval in shape with a slight pattern on the yellowish skin. By weight, they grow to 1.5 kg. With a greenish tinge, the flesh is tender, crumbly and has a good taste. The yield under the film can reach 5 kg / sq. m
Superearly melon varieties
In general, early melon varieties include those that are able to bear ripe fruit after 60-65 days of vegetation. But selection does not stand still, and in recent decades, the so-called ultra-early melons have appeared, the ripening of which is possible even in an even shorter period. It is about them that will be discussed in this chapter.
Barnaulka or Barnaulskaya is a rather old melon variety that was bred in the last century. Its main advantage is tremendous precocity. Fruits ripen in 45 days after the first shoots. They have an elongated shape with a skin without a yellowish mesh. Fruit weight reaches 1.5 kg.
Another superanny variety, whose producers claim that ripe melons can be obtained in 30-40 days of vegetation. True, the fruits are small, weighing about 600 g. The shape is oval, the skin is light beige with a grid. Tastes are good.
An interesting, rather new sort of melon of Japanese selection. Seeds can also be sold under the name "Dream of a Bum". Fruits ripen in 50-55 days. In Western countries, this variety is often called apple melon because of its juicy, sweet and crispy white flesh. The aroma of the fruit is delicate, honey.
The skin is very thin and smooth so that the fruits can be eaten with it. They are somewhat non-standard pear-shaped and unusual color: light with dark green specks.
The weight of the fruit is small: from 200 to 400 g. From 15 to 20 canals ripen on one plant per season. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests.
Pretty new hybrid melon Lithuanian selection. But at the same time, already in 2017, it was introduced into the State Register of Russia and recommended for cultivation throughout Russia. Fruits ripen from 50 to 60 days from the beginning of the growing season. They have an oval shape and a delicate, rather sweet taste. Вес дыни достигает 1,7 кг, они хорошо хранятся (до 60 дней) и неплохо транспортируются. Урожайность - до 2,5 кг/кв. m
Ранние сорта дыни
Пожалуй, одна из самых распространенных групп дынь, называемых иногда русскими скороспелками. Вегетационный период у них составляет от 60 до 80 суток. Они имеют обычно невысокую урожайность, некрупный размер плодов и практически не хранятся и не транспортируются. These are melons for local, momentary use. But they begin to ripen, when growing seedlings, from the end of July or from the beginning of August.
Good reliable variety with very tasty and fragrant fruits, despite their early ripening (58-75 days). By weight, fruits reach 1.7 kg. This melon variety has a slightly oval orange-colored fruit with a pronounced solid mesh. The flesh is thick, but at the same time juicy and tender. For its maturity, the variety has good yields and is quite transportable.
It has quite average characteristics for all indicators. A typical representative of the group of early ripe melons. Bred by Aelita breeders in 2015.
Early ripe hybrid of the Israeli selection. Among all the early varieties of melons striking size of its egg-shaped fruit. They can reach 2.5-2.9 kg. And at the same time the fruits of this size ripen in just 55 -70 days. And the taste of Myron is also on top. They contain up to 6.8% of sugars. Fruits are stored for about 10 days. The hybrid shows good resistance to weather problems, including heat and waterlogging.
This variety is practically a double of one of the Asian melons with the same name. The difference between them is only in size and ripening. Pineapple (European) does not gain more than 2 kg in weight, but it has time to ripen in just 65-70 days. And in the taste of its fruit you can really feel some exotic notes, reminiscent of pineapple.
The variety also has resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose.
This variety is a typical representative of green melon. Fruits have an oval-elliptical shape and green color of a peel with a grayish shade. The peel is also speckled with thick and thick mesh pattern. Fruits grow small, up to 1.2 kg. The flesh is very beautiful, orange. The density and juiciness of the fruit is average. Tastes are good. The yield is quite small - about 1 kg / sq. m. But melons well preserved (up to 25 days) and transported.
The early ripe grade of the French selection is very similar in appearance to cantaloupe. Rounded gray fruit in color have pronounced lobes, the boundaries of which are outlined in a dark green shade. Orange rather dense pulp has a good sweet taste and not very pronounced aroma.
The early melon variety is quite suitable for cultivation, both in open ground and under film covers. Fruits ripen fairly amicably for 62-65 days. Melons have barely noticeable segmentation. The flesh is very juicy and crispy, contains up to 10% sugar. The fragrance is weak. Productivity - up to 2.3 kg / sq. m. The fruits are not deadly and not transportable. But they are resistant to powdery mildew and perinospora.
Mid-season varieties of melons
Melon varieties of medium ripening are sometimes also called summer. Although their gestation period most often falls on the very end of summer and September. Often they are distinguished by higher yields, thicker, and sweeter pulp compared to earlier varieties. In addition, they have a firmer peel and are therefore better adapted for storage and transportation.
A fairly common melon variety for industrial cultivation, especially in the southern regions. Ripens over a period of 78 to 92 days. Fruit weight is not very large, on average up to 2 kg. But when rationing the fruit can be more than 3 kg. Yellow round fruits have bright juicy and sweet pulp with a sugar content of more than 8%. Lada shows resistance to many diseases and practically does not crack during a wet summer. Productivity is average, up to 2-3 kg / sq. m
Another very popular among gardeners from different regions is the melon variety. The color is yellow-orange with pronounced segments, separated by light gray stripes. Melons reach a mass of 2.8 kg. Juicy and tender pulp has a bright orange hue and honey flavor. The fruit has a strong melon flavor. Ethiopka is good for hot growing conditions.
Melon hybrid English breeding, which matures about 70-85 days after germination. Melons have a regular elliptical shape and a pronounced dense mesh on the surface. Resistant to sunburn and cracking. Good taste combined with good yield and transportability.
A completely new hybrid from the company "Zedek", which gathered in itself the best qualities of predecessors. Melons ripen in about 80 days, although they are quite large in size - up to 3 kg and are well stored (up to 18-20 days). The flesh is juicy, crunchy, sweet and quite extensive in size. Productivity reaches 5 kg / sq. m
Despite the relative antiquity of the variety (it was bred and recorded in the State Register of Russia in 1964), the melon is still very popular among gardeners. After all, it combines a fairly high yield (up to 28 t / ha) with good taste, excellent keeping quality and transportability. In addition, the variety is able to withstand a variety of diseases.
These varieties of melons are remarkably stored and, as a rule, have the highest sugar content. But their long growing season practically does not allow growing them anywhere except in the southern regions. However, some varieties can be plucked immature, and they are well kept up in room conditions, on the windowsills.
Variety of melons with the name, indicating that its fruits are perfectly preserved in the winter. Wintering is not for nothing zoned in the Ural region. Its not too long growing season (85-92 days) allows you to grow it through seedlings, even in the Urals.
Bushes grow quite powerful, climbing. Oval fruits reach a weight of 2.5 kg. The flesh is light green with a sugar content of 8-9%. On the peel there is a coarse large mesh. The fruits have high taste properties for 3.5 months after their collection. Wintering is characterized by a stable yield of leveled fruit.
Late-ripening melon variety (82-111 days) characterized by high taste, good yield (30 t / ha) and resistance to growing conditions. Stored not too long for late varieties (about 30 days), but is well transported.
This unique variety, although it has a long growing season (more than 100 days), is well served at home and is characterized by an excellent melon aroma. The latter is not very typical for late varieties. Therefore, honey giant melon is often grown even in the Moscow region.Attention! The most experienced gardeners plant this sort of melon on lagenariya or pumpkin, and this allows to somewhat reduce the time of ripening and increase the resistance of plants to cold and lack of light.
Plants can produce tasty and large fruits only in suitable conditions, with an abundance of light and heat. In addition, they need a minimum of 112-115 days for ripening. But they are perfectly preserved for more than 3 months after collection. The weight of one melon can vary from 4 to 8 kg.
Gulyabi or Chardzhui
This sort of melon is from Central Asia, which has excellent taste and long shelf life. Large, oblong-shaped fruits (weighing up to 7-8 kg) can easily be stored in a cool room until March inclusive. Moreover, their taste is fully manifested only a month after the harvest. These melons ripen only for 130-135 day of the growing season and their cultivation is possible only in the southernmost regions of Russia.
The sweetest melons
Sugar content in sweet melons can significantly exceed 10%. No wonder the taste of these melons is often compared with the sweetness of honey.
Sometimes this variety is also called Sweet Pineapple. The vegetation period is about 95 days. Melons grow to 3 kg and have a very sweet, oily pulp with some pineapple flavor. It tolerates disease. Storage and transportation are possible within 2-3 weeks.
This hybrid of the French selection requires not too much time for maturing, only 78-80 days. Melons have a very regular and beautiful round-oval shape and a weight of up to 3 kg. The flesh is very fragrant and sweet, with an orange-pink shade. The hybrid is resistant to many diseases. Harvest - an average of about 2.5 kg / sq. m. Well stored and transported.
This creation of Sedek breeders differs in comparatively capricious agrotechnics of cultivation, but its really honey taste and aroma leave far behind all other varieties of melons from this company. Melon differ in small size (up to 1.4 kg) and early ripening (60-65 days).
Among all the "princesses" this variety is the sweetest. The sugar content in it reaches 10%. In addition, it is distinguished by early maturity, resistance to diseases and difficult weather conditions.
Relatively early maturing (62-66 days) variety of French selection, the name of which already speaks of the sweetness of its fruits. The sugar content in them reaches 9.8%. Fruits of medium size (1.4-2.4 kg) have a strong melon flavor. Resistant to fusarium and over-wetting of the soil. The yield is quite decent, up to 2.8 kg / sq. m
This melon in favorable growing conditions can show record levels of sugar content in fruits - up to 17%. The melons have a small size (up to 1 kg), a pleasant creamy shade of the peel and almost snow-white juicy flesh of unsurpassed taste and charming flavor. Fruits ripen in 70-75 days after germination.
The best varieties of melons for greenhouses
When choosing suitable melon varieties for growing in greenhouses, it is necessary to pay attention to the yield and compactness of plants, as well as their resistance to fungal diseases.
This popular variety, bred by Gavrish breeders, can be attributed to the medium early (70-80 vegetation days). Plants have a fairly strong growth, but they can be let curl on the trellis. The fruits have a small size (1.2-1.6 kg) with good taste characteristics. The yield can average 6-8 kg / sq. m
A hybrid from the same breeders who, in addition to high yields, has an excellent sweet taste of fruits. It also ripens quite early, 70-80 days after germination. It is also characterized by resistance to powdery mildew.
Already in the very name of this melon there are unusual features that characterize the appearance of the fruit. This is a melon variety not only with a well-defined lobular structure, but also with the warty surface of its skin. Externally, the fruit is a bit like a pumpkin. Weight can reach 3.5 kg. The flesh is an attractive dark orange shade. The flavor is average, the taste is sweet. Moreover, the plants begin to bear fruit quite early - on 60-65 day of vegetation. Productivity is also good - up to 5.2 kg / sq. m
Ogen melon was born as a result of the efforts of Israeli breeders, but managed to settle down in the Russian open spaces due to compact lash, good yield (4-5 kg / sq. M) and relatively early ripening periods (82-85 days). This melon variety is a type of "musk" melon with well-marked yellow-orange slices and dark green faces. It is characterized by a strong melon aroma and sweet flesh, even in immature state. In the open ground, rot of the base of the stems is still subject to cold and wet weather, but in the greenhouses it feels excellent. Fruit weight - up to 1 kg.
This hybrid is another presentation.