Cucumber is the first fresh vegetable after a long winter. Before the rest, he appears on the shelves of markets and shops, and the first begins to bear fruit in country houses and vegetable gardens. Of course, I want to quickly get ripe fruit, so breeders and work on the cultivation of early cucumber varieties. The earliest vegetables are saturated with the same nutrients and microelements as other varieties, and these cucumbers start to bear fruit one to two weeks earlier than the others.
How to grow cucumbers before anyone else
Especially for lovers to enjoy fresh vegetables from their own garden breeders and brought early ripening varieties of cucumbers. In general, all cucumbers according to the speed of ripening are divided into several types:
- superearly - bear the first fruits already at 33-40 days after planting;
- early ripening varieties have a growing season of no more than 45 days;
- mid-ripening - will ripen at 45-50 days;
- Late-ripening cucumbers will appear on the bushes only by the 55th day after the seeds are planted in the ground.
So, in order to quickly remove the first crop from the bushes, it is necessary to choose the seeds of super early and early maturing varieties of cucumber.Important! The earlier the cucumbers are planted, the faster their “life” will end. The first Zelentsy lead to wilting of the root system, the bush will not be able to bear fruit for a long time.
What rules need to be followed
The owner must understand that each type of cucumber has its own purpose. So, superearly varieties and hybrids are most often grown in greenhouses. As a result of selection, the seeds of such plants, of course, receive the necessary hardening, which helps them to cope with day and night temperatures, spring frosts and other troubles. And yet, even the most seasoned superearly cucumbers can not withstand the climatic features of the northern and central regions of Russia.
Therefore, buying seeds, the situation should be assessed in the complex: to answer such questions:
- What are these cucumbers for (for salad, in order to saturate the first need for vitamins, for preservation)?
- Is it possible to cover the bushes from frost (greenhouse, temporary greenhouses, just covering film)?
- What is the average temperature in this region at a certain time of the year (do frosts occur, does air temperature vary much by day and night)?
If you need a variety in order to get a few kilograms of early cucumbers (until the average grows) and use them fresh, then superearly varieties and hybrids will be very useful. Especially if there is an opportunity to shelter them from the cold, and the site is on the south side in a warm region.
Early varieties can be used for preservation and marinades, but this is impractical. It is better to use mid-season and late-ripened cucumbers for this purpose.
Features early cucumbers
Early cucumbers are breeding varieties and hybrids, on which scientists have worked. The seeds of these cucumbers, like the plants themselves, have a number of features:
- seeds undergo severe hardening at low temperatures;
- they are more resistant to diseases;
- early varieties are less demanding of the sun and heat - for normal growth they need only partial shade and no frost;
- most of the early varieties are parthenocarpic and self-pollinating species, but there are also bee-pollinated cucumbers for planting in open ground;
- it is more effective to plant early cucumbers in greenhouses (they do it in late February or early March);
- in the ground such cucumbers are planted depending on the climate - more often, in the third decade of May;
- early varieties are never bitter (breeders simultaneously with the hardening process removed bitterness from cucumbers);
- almost all early ripe cucumbers are best consumed fresh (they are juicy, with a thin skin and tender flesh).
Variety or hybrid
Having decided on the terms of ripening and peculiarities of early ripe cucumbers, the gardener faces another problem - which cucumbers are better than varietal or hybrid.
There is no unequivocal answer to this question, and those and other species are distinguished by high yields, resistance to diseases and high humidity. So what is the difference, and which cucumbers are better?
Varieties are varieties of the same species bred by breeders. The main condition for such a selection is the transfer to the “descendant” of all the qualities and characteristics of the “ancestors”. We can say that this is natural reproduction with some adjustments that scientists make. Varietal cucumbers can be modified independently, transferring pollen from one type of plant to another. Only from these, varietal, cucumbers, you can collect seeds for subsequent cultivation - they fully preserve the characteristics of the previous plant.Important! Bee pollinated varieties of early cucumbers give a lot of male flowers on the main shoot. So that they do not reduce the yield and weaken the bush, they tear off the flowers, and pinch the shoot.
Hybrid seeds are easily distinguished by marking “F1” next to the name of the variety. This code means that female flowers predominate in cucumber, and inside the package there are seeds of a hybrid of the first generation (number 1). Hybrids are obtained by repeatedly crossing several types of cucumbers. This process is quite long - from three to ten years. Every year, the obtained seeds are crossed again, achieving the optimal qualities of a cucumber. The best characteristics of a grade are left, getting rid of shortcomings and weaknesses.Important! Hybrids are more resistant to temperature factors and major diseases of cucumbers.
Purchase of seeds of early ripe cucumbers
Having defined all the nuances, you can proceed to the selection of suitable varieties and hybrids. The difference between super early and early ripe cucumbers is a few days in ripening. This limit is very conditional, the exact time frame can only be talked about in the greenhouse cultivation of cucumbers at a stable temperature, light and humidity.
Therefore, below is a joint list of the best early and super early cucumbers.
Early ripe cucumber with high yield (up to 4 kg per square meter), suitable for planting in open ground and for greenhouse cultivation. Fruits of medium size - 10-16 cm, have excellent taste, with the same success can be used for eating fresh and for preservation.
In the ground cucumber can be planted only after the threat of frost, when the earth warms to 10-12 degrees. Bushes of this variety are branched with large green leaves. The first greenhouses will appear on the 36-38 day after disembarkation. It should be borne in mind that Avangard is a bee-pollinating variety.
One of the most common on the territory of Russia variety of early ripe cucumbers - "Augustine". It gives a good harvest - up to 440 centners per hectare of land, which allows you to successfully grow this variety for sale. It is possible to plant both in the greenhouse, and in an open ground - the cucumber does not need pollination, it belongs to pertenocarpic.
The fruits are small (10–16 cm) with large tubercles; there is absolutely no bitterness in them. It may well be used for salting, and for salads. "Augustine" is resistant to one of the main enemies of cucumbers - powdery mildew. And you can see it in the photo below.
The representative of the early ripening varieties - the hybrid "Ajax F1" is simply created for cultivation in the open field. With this approach, the first cucumbers can be obtained already on the 40th day after planting.
For pollination, Ajax needs insects, because it is a bee-pollinating hybrid. With good pollination from a square meter of land, the owner will be able to receive up to 10 kg of cucumbers. Small cucumbers (from 6 to 12 cm) are excellent for both salting and salads.
The landlord must take into account that for high-quality fruiting, the Ajax F1 hybrid needs timely watering, loosening of the soil and fertilizing. Photos of "Ajax" can be seen below.
Parthenocarpic hybrid "Courage F1" has mostly female flowers, so its yield is very high - up to 8.5 kg. The cucumbers are “decorated” with a multitude of hillocks and white thorns, the fruit pulp is fragrant and crunchy. Such early ripe cucumbers are suitable for salting, and for salad, and for marinade.
Resistant to most diseases "Courage F1" planted only in open ground in late April or early May. It is important to take into account the temperature of the earth, it should be above 10 degrees.
Another one of the early maturing hybrids is "Artist F1". Partenocarpic appearance with predominantly female inflorescences.
On the 38th day after planting in the greenhouse soil gives the first fruits - small cucumbers, weighing up to 100 grams. You can plant "Artist F1" and in open ground, only the crop in this case will appear later - on the 50th day after planting. Cucumbers juicy and crunchy, without bitterness, are used for preservation and salads.
Bushes "Artist" sredneroslye, resistant to cold and many diseases. It is necessary to sow seeds of a hybrid in May. You can see a cucumber on this photo.
Tip! Bright and beautiful seed packaging does not mean the quality of the contents. Cucumber seeds should be purchased from a reputable manufacturer, taking into account customer reviews and the company's reputation.
You do not need to choose cucumbers of early varieties, when you just want to eat the first vegetable rather. There must be grounds for such a decision: suitable climate, covering material, southern section with dry ground.
Some early ripe varieties will not be able to provide the gardener's family with a crop for the whole summer. It is best to plant several types of cucumbers in one area: early ones should be used for the first salads and okroshka, and the middle and late ones should be salted for the winter. So, the owner will be able to enjoy fresh cucumbers all season - from May to October.