Cucumbers love to grow almost all gardeners. The culture is quite whimsical to the conditions, but the unsurpassed taste of the vegetable overlaps the effort. Gherkins - small-fruited cucumber varieties, the main difference of which are fruits of miniature size, gained particular popularity.
The average length of cucumbers reaches 6-10 cm in length, the skin is thin, the pulp is dense without voids, and the seeds are small. They have an excellent taste, a pleasant crunchy, which is appreciated by all lovers of lightly salted vegetables. Often, gherkins are replaced by ordinary varieties, tearing off unripe fruits of small sizes. However, the taste of ordinary varieties of cucumbers is noticeably inferior to babies - gherkins.
Small-growing cucumbers are grown both in open ground and in greenhouses. The second option allows you to get an earlier harvest, as well as to prevent vegetables from temperature extremes, irregular moisture.
Features of cultivation of small varieties of cucumbers
Gherkin cucumbers whimsical to agricultural technology. For a good harvest you need:
- carefully dispense mineral fertilizers;
- maintain optimum watering and lighting;
- keep the cucumber beds clean;
- often, but gently loosen the soil;
- time to remove weeds;
- regularly hold events against pests and diseases of cucumbers.
The main difference and guarantee of success in the cultivation of gherkins is the need for daily fruit picking. This allows the bush to activate fruiting. Cucumbers do not outgrow, retain their taste and nutritional value. The growth of the fruit stops at a length of 10 -11 cm, then begins an intensive thickening. Overgrowths do not allow the rest of cucumbers to be poured, yield decreases.
For small-fruited gherkin varieties, it is not recommended to use watering of the scattered type. Cucumber does not tolerate moisture on the leaves, it is better to moisten the soil in the root zone. About the lack of moisture, the plant immediately signals the withering of the leaves, so regular watering is an important condition for a large crop of gherkins for greenhouse cultivation and ground.
To get the desired result, you must follow the basic guidelines for the care of gherkins. The open ground has its own specific features. Greenhouse requires, in addition to knowledge of agrotechnical measures, to study the rules of operation of greenhouses. This will give an opportunity to get an early and high quality crop of cucumbers. But the result will justify all the effort.
Useful tips for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Many opt for a method of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse. This allows not only to shorten the ripening of fruits, but also to create more comfortable conditions for plants. First of all, you should take care of the cleanliness and ventilation of the greenhouse. Wooden structures of greenhouses are disinfected, metal structures are painted. Before planting seedlings of gherkins in the greenhouse, they carry out all activities for the decontamination of soil, removal of plant residues, and arrangement of beds.
Such actions are performed in the autumn after harvest. The main activities in the greenhouses, which will have to be performed during the cucumber growing period, remain:
- top dressing;
- protection of cucumbers from diseases and pests.
Also, the yield directly depends on the choice of gherkin seeds.Important! For greenhouses, it is recommended to choose self-pollinated cucumber varieties with shortened side loops.
In this case, there is no need for artificial pollination and pinching lash gherkins. All self-pollinating cucumber varieties, when grown in a greenhouse, have to be formed in order to prevent strong thickening.
This is the reason for the decrease in yield, the appearance of common diseases on cucumbers - powdery mildew, stem rot. To avoid this, you need to cut off the ends of the whips after the second leaf on the side shoots.
Get a good crop of gherkins in the greenhouse under the force of even a novice gardener. We follow certain rules and enjoy crunchy cucumbers. Be sure to provide the plants with enough nutrients, lighting and moisture.
Cooking fertile soil
If you have already grown any vegetables in the greenhouse, the preparation of the soil for the next harvest should be done in advance. Cucumbers love a quality mixture, so the soil in the greenhouse must be fertile. The best combination is fresh humus with soddy soil. It is well recommended a mixture of field soil, taken in an amount of 20% of the total, with the addition of 50% peat and 30% humus. To prepare the soil for the greenhouse is easy. After harvesting and all plant residues, soil decontamination is carried out. They dig up all the beds of the greenhouse to the depth of the spade bayonet (20 cm) and cultivate the land with copper sulfate solution (7%). In a month, a ground mixture is prepared for cucumbers with the ratio of components described above. Add nutrients and lay in the ridge of the greenhouse. For one cubic meter of volume, 2 kg of potassium sulfate, 3 kg of superphosphate, 0.4 kg of ammonium nitrate are sufficient.Important! In order to provide the most suitable conditions for fruiting, it is better to lay ridges or make ridges. On a flat surface the growth of cucumber fruits is lower.
If the soil is prepared in the spring, then it is necessary to apply manure well-rotten and past biothermal disinfection. The ridges are made after the shelter of the greenhouse film on the readiness of the soil. They are located either along or across the shelter. It depends on the size of the greenhouse.
In the period of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse it is necessary to monitor the compaction of the soil. Loosening is carried out regularly and gently in order not to damage the root system of gherkin cucumbers, which is close to the surface.
We carry out competent watering in the greenhouse
To obtain a stable crop of cucumbers, it is necessary to control soil moisture. Waterlogging is just as undesirable as moisture deficiency. In addition, an important factor is the regularity of watering. With sharp fluctuations in soil moisture, the roots crack and root rot appears. On hot days, gherkins are watered daily, on cloudy and cool days, as needed. The best time for watering in the greenhouse is in the evening when the water is warm enough. Cold water is very harmful for the root system of cucumbers. In order not to seal the soil, a usual sprinkler is put on the end of the hose or the spout of the watering can. Water is poured carefully, trying not to fall on the leaves of gherkins. After each irrigation, shallow soil is loosened. If the roots of cucumbers come to the surface, it is necessary to pour the nutrient mixture with a layer of not more than one and a half centimeters.
Regular airing against diseases
The film coating of the greenhouse does not allow water vapor to pass through; therefore, airing is necessary every day. To do this, open only the upper vents, protecting the gherkins from drafts. Dry air creates favorable conditions for cucumber pests (spider mites) in the greenhouse. It is very useful for cucumbers to conduct daily humidity control to avoid large drops.
Proper feeding is half the success
The ability to feed the gherkins competently helps not only to preserve, but also significantly increase the yield. For the entire season, it is enough to spend four to five feedings of cucumbers, the main thing is to make it in time. There are two groups - organic and mineral fertilizers. You can make them root and foliar way. A cucumber signals a lack of any element in a certain way. Basic requirements for fertilizer application:
- Normalization. Any overdose is harmful, but nutritional deficiencies will do no less harm. In the greenhouse it is necessary to adhere to one more rule. The ideal option is to feed gherkins in small doses, adhering to prescription recommendations.
- Qualitative composition. For cucumbers need minerals - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as organic - mullein, chicken droppings.
- Deposit Time The first greenhouse feeding is carried out before the gherkins bloom. The following can be carried out not earlier than 14 days after the first. For the season, the optimal amount for cucumbers is three or four times.
- Type of fertilizer. Nitrogen is necessary for the full development of the deciduous mass, but reduces the quality of the fruit. Therefore, it is better to use fertilizers without nitrate nitrogen in the greenhouse. Phosphorus stimulates the flowering and ovary of cucumber fruits, and also nourishes the root mass. Potassium is indispensable in the fruiting period. It helps the movement of nutrients from the roots to all above-ground parts of cucumbers.
Another important condition will be the selection of seeds for gherkins for the greenhouse, as well as the protection of plants from pests and diseases. The appearance of diseases can be foreseen and carry out preventive measures. The main thing is to remove factors such as high humidity, temperature, and dry air in the greenhouse. Now you can prepare for the harvest of a rich crop of cucumbers.