In order for the pepper to give a good and high-quality harvest, it is necessary to approach the choice of the variety correctly, taking into account not only such characteristics as the growing season, the mass and size of the fruit. It is very important to take into account the climatic zone in which the plant grows and bears fruit well, whether it is adapted for cultivation in the open field or greenhouse, and also how demanding the pepper variety is for regular watering and fertilizer. Another criterion for the selection of crop litter - the exact time and timing of planting material seed, and its transfer to open ground.
Some secrets for high yields
Even if you chose the most productive variety of pepper, fully suitable for growing conditions in your region, it is not a fact that after the growing season you can remove a large number of ripe and large fruits from the bush. Experienced gardeners know the secrets of obtaining large yields and achieve the goal, applying a total of 8 basic rules for growing peppers.
Having prepared planting material, it is very important to observe the terms of its landing. As a rule, seeds are dipped into the ground in early February, trying to get early harvests, however, for the regions of the Urals and Western Siberia, such seedlings will not give a stable friendly harvest. Early saplings of even the most fruitful varieties do not always show what they are capable of, therefore for these regions planting material is better in the middle of March.
In order to get a quick germination of seedlings, and the seedlings themselves were strong, planting material should be soaked before sowing. To do this, a layer of cotton is lined on a small plate, pepper seeds are laid out and covered with another layer of cotton, which is carefully sprinkled with water. After the procedure, planting material sprouts already for 3-4 days. When sprouting, you can use organic growth stimulants such as HB-101 or aloe juice. The plate is left in a warm place, and as the top layer of wool dries, do not forget to moisten it. As soon as the main part of the planting material will sprout, 2-3 cm high, the seeds can be planted in the ground.
Sowing on seedlings
One of the secrets of sweet pepper is that this culture is a “proponent of individuality,” and therefore, the planted planting material should in no case be placed in large containers or boxes for seedlings. In the planting container or peat pot dipped no more than two seeds. In this capacity for growing seedlings should not be transparent. Another secret of the cultivation of sweet pepper is that the roots of this culture do not tolerate open sunlight. Planting material is not deepened. To obtain a strong seedling, simply sprinkle the seed with a layer of substrate of 2 mm.
There is a category of yield varieties that do not like and do not tolerate transplanting. How to deal with such plants when picking, so important for getting strong and good seedlings? Standard measures of picking and digging in this case are not suitable, since the seedlings will immediately stop growing.
Experienced gardeners recommend approaching the cultivation of such varieties and hybrids individually, immediately placing the crooked seed in bulk planting containers (at least 500 ml). If you use this method of planting, pickling the plant is not required.
In order for the saplings to give a good quality harvest in the future, the seedlings must be regularly watered to prevent the soil from drying out. Remember that each missed watering, and every dead leaf of seedlings in the future will significantly reduce yields.
Place for growing peppers
Sweet Bulgarian pepper loves heat and light very much, preferring to grow on fertile neutral soils. In order to get a high-quality and large crop, be sure to deposit prepared compost into the wells for planting seedlings. Do not plant the plant in places where there may be drafts. A place in the garden should be well heated by the sun and well lit.
The optimum temperature for growing peppers is 25-26С. Only in this case, you can get a friendly and high-quality harvest. In addition, pepper loves to keep its roots warm, so how well you prepare and warm the soil can also affect the yield of the crop.
Not all varieties of high-yield pepper are resistant to temperature variations in the air and on the soil; therefore, farmers often insulate the soil by putting plastic bottles of hot water into the soil. Even in summer, these "batteries" beds do not interfere with pepper growing in the open field.
Watering, fertilizer, mulching
An adult plant, even under the most favorable growth conditions, needs regular watering. Even if on the package with planting material you see the inscription “drought resistance”, remember that this definition concerns only minor deviations from the schedule of regular watering.
In order for the sweet pepper to give a quality crop, avoid overflowing and stagnation of moisture in the soil. In case of cloudy weather, the soil will not dry out immediately, which means that the root may be subject to rottenness.
As soon as you have planted pepper seedlings at a permanent place of growth, mulch the beds, creating a layer with a height of 15-20 cm. Do the same during the entire period of ripening and fruiting, regularly sprinkling a little mulch under the plant. This is one of the secrets that the ground does not dry up, even if you miss 1-2 watering.
Once a week, sweet pepper is desirable to feed. It also significantly affects its yield. From organic fertilizers, the best for pepper productivity is the infusion of wood ash (at the rate of 2 cups per bucket of water). Recently, tincture made from nettle leaves has become widely popular among farmers. As it turned out, this plant well stimulates growth and promotes abundant flowering of peppers.
Forming a bush
When transferring seedlings to the ground, remove from the plant all that have appeared in buds. Seedlings in a new place should focus on growth, not flowering. When the bush will form 4-5 branches, begin to pinch the plant. Leave on it after the branches as many ovaries as you see fit, and remove the remaining leaves.
If you chose a tall fruitful variety of sweet pepper, remove all lower leaves and shoots from the plant. And if late varieties of pepper grow on your beds, in the beginning or in the middle of September, leave on the bush only those inflorescences that have managed to start. The rest of the flowers need to be removed, because the fruits do not have time to ripen them, but the forces will spend on this plant.
Observing all these rules can achieve significant results by increasing the yield at times.
The best early varieties of high-yielding peppers
Early ripe pepper has a growing season of up to 100 days, and gives quite good stable yields when growing it in open ground in southern regions or when transferring seedlings to greenhouse conditions. The following are considered popular crop varieties in central Russia:
The grade is intended for cultivation in greenhouses and long film tunnels. Refers to the medium early, high-yielding. The bush is short and compact, therefore the planting pattern of 30x50 cm is used. With a full stop of growth, the height of the bush rarely exceeds 50 cm. The growing season begins at 100-105 days. The fruits have the shape of a cone, do not exceed 10 cm in length. The pepper skin is dense, painted white, the pulp is sweetish, juicy, the wall thickness is up to 7 mm.
The peculiarities of the “Snow White” variety are the sowing depth of seeds - 3 cm, regular fertilizing of the plant with mineral fertilizers is necessary. The sowing date is March, the harvesting date is the end of June.
The grade is intended for cultivation in greenhouses and under film shelters. It belongs to the most frost-resistant varieties with early ripening. The vegetation period begins on the 100th day after the seed has been pricked. Fruits are small in size, the weight of each pepper does not exceed 80-90 grams. with wall thickness up to 8 mm, painted red. The plant is short, compact, supports planting 50x30 cm. Peculiarities of cultivation: Pepper "Dwarf" during the period of growth requires regular mineral fertilization.
Early ripening variety, one of the features of which is the harmonious ripening of fruits. The growing season in the southern regions and under the conditions of planting pepper in the greenhouse is 100-105 days. The bush on open ground does not exceed 60 cm in height, in greenhouse conditions it is 70-75 cm. The fruits have a regular cone shape, smooth, painted red. The wall of the fruit in the period of full maturity is “fleshy”, with a thickness of 0.9-1 cm, while the weight of one pepper rarely exceeds 100 grams.
The variety is considered high-yielding. With all the rules of care, watering and feeding from one bush up to 6-7 kg of a tasty harvest are taken. Distinctive features of the Swallow pepper are resistance to TMV, fungal diseases, bacterial wilt and root rot.
Winnie the Pooh
High-yielding early-ripening variety with small compact bushes and bouquet arrangement of fruits. The period of fruiting begins at 105-100 days after the seed has been hatching. The fruit has a rich red color, cone-shaped. The weight of one fruit is 80-100 g, with a wall thickness of up to 7-8 mm.
Winnie the Pooh is famous among gardeners and landowners for its high product characteristics. Fruits are smooth, the skin is glossy and dense. In addition, Winnie the Pooh has high characteristics of keeping quality and preservation of taste during long shipments.
Mid-season fruit varieties of pepper
The vegetative period of these varieties and hybrids begins at 110-130 days after the first shoots. In the south of Russia and in its middle lane, varieties are planted in open ground and greenhouses, in the northern regions it is recommended to grow middle-aged varieties only on protected ground.
This is one of the most popular and favorite gardeners mid-season variety. Seeds give a friendly germination, and planted them on the seedlings can be in the middle of March. Besides the fact that the plant gives high yields, the fruits themselves have excellent product characteristics. All fruits are smooth, regular cubic shape. The grade belongs to thick-walled - the average wall thickness is from 8 to 10 mm.
Small compact bushes do not exceed 70 cm, however, during the growing season of a plant from one such bush up to 5-6 kg of tasty fleshy fruits can be removed. The variety "California miracle" refers to the universal, and, in addition to a variety of cooking and canning, does not lose taste and is widely used for freezing.
High-yield variety with compact and low bushes, intended for cultivation in open ground and greenhouse conditions. Fruits possess the correct cone-shaped form, in a biological maturity it is painted in red color. The mass of one pepper does not exceed 100 gr., With an average wall thickness - up to 5 mm.
Features of the “Gift of Moldova” variety - undemanding in the care and feeding and high resistance to viral and fungal diseases.
Variety refers to the medium early, but when grown in central Russia, the Urals and Siberia produces fruits only 110-115 days from the first shoots. The plant is more than 1 meter high, therefore it requires tying in the process of growth on the open ground or in the greenhouse.
The fruits are large, thick-walled, painted in a rich orange color, have a smooth cuboid shape. The average weight of a full-grown pepper is 150-200 grams, with up to 6-7 kg of crop being harvested from one bush. The plant is resistant to TMV, root rot, bacterial wilting of leaves. The best yields "Orange King" gives under the film covers.
Late ripening varieties of sweet pepper
These varieties are recommended for cultivation in the southern regions of the country or in stationary heated polycarbonate greenhouses. Good yields give both varieties of domestic breeding and hybrids of Dutch, Italian and German breeders.
High-yielding hybrid Dutch breeding. Grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. The fruits are large, pyramidal, with a wall thickness of up to 12 mm. During the period of full maturity, one pepper can reach sizes up to 13-15 cm, with a mass of about 250 grams.
Hybrid, bred by Italy breeders. Fruits are bright purple or red, with a wall thickness of up to 10 mm. The average mass of the fruit during ripening can reach 250 grams. From one bush in greenhouse conditions, up to 5-6 kg of crop is removed. Distinctive features of the hybrid are the high demands of the plant for additional feeding throughout the entire period of growth and fruiting.
High-yielding variety with beautiful fleshy fruits. Wall thickness - 10-12 mm, average fruit weight - 200 g. Madonna is recognized as one of the best hybrids for growing in stationary greenhouses. Up to 6 kg of large sweet peppers are collected from one bush.
Distinctive features of the hybrid "Madonna" - high resistance to viral and fungal diseases, the ability to give good yields, even in shaded areas of the garden.
On how to achieve greater yields of sweet peppers in their backyards see video