Hot pepper has many names, someone calls him "chili", someone likes the name "spicy". To date, there are more than three thousand varieties of hot peppers, all of them have their own characteristics. There are red, green, yellow, orange, purple and even chocolate peppers. The shape of the peppers and their sizes also differ. But the main distinctive feature is the burning or sharpness of fruits, its size is measured on the Scoville scale - the higher the SHU value indicated on the package with seeds, the more “evil” pepper from them will grow.
In this article we consider the most famous varieties of hot pepper, get acquainted with its characteristics and growing conditions.
How to grow hot peppers at home
Chili is good because it can be planted not only in the greenhouse or on the garden, but this crop is often planted in pots that decorate window sills or balconies.
Hot pepper came to Europe from tropical America and India. On these continents with a humid and hot climate, the culture is considered to be perennial - chili can grow and bear fruit there all year round.
In the domestic climate, heat-loving culture will have to be planted every season. Due to the long growing season (from 90 to 130 days), plants are grown by seedling:
- seeds are pre-soaked and left in a warm place for pecking;
- planted seeds in the prepared loose soil;
- pots put in a warm place where there are no drafts and temperature drops;
- after 1-1.5 months after sowing, seedlings can be transferred to a permanent place (in a greenhouse or on the ground).
What are hot peppers
Many people mistakenly believe that hot peppers must be red. Chili can be painted absolutely any shade. The same applies to the shape and size of the fruit. There are fruits, the length of which reaches 30 cm, and there are very small peppers, the size of which does not exceed a couple of centimeters.
Peppers with a pronounced fruity or citrus aroma and pleasant taste grow in the tropics or in India. From such fruits make wonderful sauces, seasonings, prepare exotic dishes.Tip! For fresh consumption, you can plant large-fruited hot pepper with fleshy pulp and thick walls. But for long-term storage in dried form, small thin-walled peppers are more suitable.
The whole world classifies hot peppers into several main categories:
- Chinese are considered the most burning.
- Mexican Habanero are the most popular.
- Trinidad tastes different, used to make sauces and adzhik.
- 7 Pot grouped on the basis of an unusual shape and pronounced fruit flavor.
- Jalapeno loves heat more than other species, so it is grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. It is these varieties grown on the window sills of city apartments.
- Cayenne peppers are easily recognizable by their stinginess and elongated shape; the bushes of these varieties are short and compact.
- Bush varieties, which include the famous "Tabasco", less popular, but also have their fans.
This variety can be planted in open ground, but in greenhouse conditions, the yield will be higher - up to 40 fruits can be removed from each bush. Peppers are not spiced right away, the harvest is obtained up to five times per season.
The shape of the fruits of the trunk, elongated. The length of each is about 20 cm, the average weight is 70 grams. In a mature state, the pepper is colored red.
The walls of the peppers are quite thick, so it is not suitable for drying, but from the “Double abundance” excellent preforms in jars are obtained, and the fruits can be frozen.
The plant withstands strong summer heat, is not afraid of diseases and viruses.
This pepper can be grown both in the greenhouse and on the garden. Bushes grow small - up to 50 cm in height, not spreading. The branches of plants do not need to be tied up, since the fruits of this variety are quite light.
The weight of one pod is only 15-20 grams, and the length is up to 12 cm. The shape of the fruit is cone-shaped, strongly elongated, the peppers have a small diameter. In the stage of biological maturity, the fruits acquire a scarlet color.
The walls of the fruit are thin, they are great for drying and other uses. The taste of pepper is pleasant, with a special aroma of paprika.Tip! If the hot pepper pods are well dried and minced, you can get a wonderful seasoning for any homemade dishes.
This variety belongs to the hottest peppers. Bushes reach a height of 65 cm, they can be grown in greenhouses, and in open areas.
The peppers themselves are not very large - the weight of each is only 70 grams, but the length is about 25 cm. When the fruit is ripe, it becomes saturated red. The shape of the pepper is a cone, but with a slightly curved bottom.
Culture refers to the early ripening - the fruits can be collected 90 days after germination. Plants stand firmly against viruses and diseases that are characteristic of the family of the nightshade.
"Trinidad Small Cherry"
Culture is considered super early - peppers can be eaten within 70 days after the seeds have been proklyututsya. The bushes grow powerful and spreading, their height often exceeds 0.8 meters.
The appearance of the fruit resembles a cherry - they have the same round shape and a small diameter - about 2 cm. The taste of the peppers is also saturated with cherry notes. On each bush grows a lot of bright orange or scarlet peppercorns.
These peppers are mildly hot, have a rich paprika flavor and a pleasant taste. Shrubs are considered high - their height often exceeds 130 cm, sprawling branches. Plants need to be tied up and better grown in a greenhouse.
The shape of the fruit is trunk-shaped, the peppers are slightly drooping. At the stage of maturity, the fruits are colored bright red, divided into two chambers with testicles. The wall thickness is about 1.5 mm, the weight of each pepper is about 30 grams.
If you grow the Indian Elephant variety in a greenhouse, you can get up to two kilograms of crop per meter of land.
Taste characteristics allow using this variety as a seasoning, an ingredient for any dish or sauce.
"Miracle of the Moscow region"
Very productive variety, giving up to four kilograms of peppers from one square meter. Bushes grow tall, with powerful side shoots and a small amount of leaves.
The fruits themselves have the shape of a cone, are drooping, their surface is smooth and shiny. The length of the fruit can be up to 25 cm, while the diameter is small - about 3 cm.
The weight of each pod rarely exceeds 50 grams. The walls are rather thick - up to 2 mm. This variety has an unusual peculiar taste, there is little bit of burning sensation.
With proper care and timely watering on one bush can ripen up to 20 peppercorns.
The representative of one of the main types of hot pepper - Mexican variety "Jalapeno". The bushes of this plant are very tall - reach one meter. Shoots powerful and sprawling. On one plant can ripen at the same time up to 40 fruits.
The peppers themselves are small - their length is no more than 10 cm. The shape of the fruit is barrel-shaped, slightly elongated. At first, the peppercorns are colored dark green, but as they mature, they turn bright red.
There are several varieties of this variety: there are peppers of red, yellow, orange, pink and chocolate hues. A distinctive feature of the variety is the dented fruit. Their shape is a cone.
Peppers grow small - the weight of one will be only 15 grams. But on each plant can ripen to hundreds of fruits at the same time.
The taste of the fruits of this variety is also very unusual - they have strongly pronounced fruit notes mixed with a strong burning sensation and sharpness.
This variety is considered mid-season and high-yielding. It can be grown in open ground, but in the northern regions of the country it is better to use film or agrofibre.
The fruits ripen at the same time, which provides the farmer with a regular harvest of fresh peppers. The height of the bush is small (up to 50 cm), the plants are not spreading, half-tumbling. With proper care from one meter of land planted with such a variety, it will be possible to collect up to 3.5 kg of stinging fruits.
The shape of the peppercorns is a cone. The arrangement is drooping, the color is first green, gradually turning into scarlet.
The surface of the fruit is smooth and shiny, the walls are thin. The mass of each pod is only 10 grams, and the length is 6 cm. Therefore, the variety can be used for preparing hot peppers for future use - to dry and grind into powder.Attention! Capsaicin alkaloid, which gives peppers a burning sensation, is contained not in the flesh of the fruit, but in the peel, bones and white veins. These are the parts of the vegetable that are the sharpest.
Plants of this variety are very tall - more than 150 cm. They must be tied up, so it is best to grow in a closed greenhouse.
Each bush is “decorated” with a multitude of pods — on one plant it can ripen up to 40 peppercorns. The shape of the fruit is an elongated cone. Their length reaches 12 cm, but the diameter is very small - about 1.5 cm.
The surface of the fruit is glossy, first green, after biological ripening it is saturated red. The taste of the fruit is moderately spicy.
Which varieties are more suitable for the domestic climate
Almost all varieties of hot peppers can be planted in open ground. Exceptions are exotic species, hybrids of foreign breeding and tall peppers that need to be tied up.
Information on how to grow a crop is easy to find on a bag of seeds, the degree of sharpness of the pods (SHU) is also indicated there. Eating hot peppers in food should be with extreme caution: in small doses, this vegetable is very useful for the human body, but excessive consumption of sharp fruits can lead to various diseases and pathologies.