About two hundred years ago, when tomatoes came from Europe to Russia, they were called “love apples” for their beauty and similarity in shape with the heart. The real homeland of these beautiful fruits is South America, where the humidity is high and the temperature is constantly high. Therefore, tomatoes are so fond of sunlight and a warm atmosphere. And the North-West of Russia does not indulge in the hot summer.
But, thanks to the efforts of Russian breeders, a way out was found, and many tomato varieties appeared that grow safely and bear fruit even in regions with an unstable climate and with a rather short summer season. So, there were varieties of tomatoes for the Leningrad region.
Peculiarities of growing tomatoes in the Leningrad region
Of course, the best for growing tomatoes in the North-West region fit heated greenhouses, but not all gardeners have such. Perhaps quite successful cultivation of tomatoes, if you use the best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses, popularly called cold. You can even plant seedlings of varieties of tomatoes for the Leningrad region immediately on an open garden bed, but then it should be well covered with greenhouse film or covering material. This design is called "film cover". In any of these cases, it is necessary to choose varieties of tomatoes for the Leningrad region, intended for greenhouses.
First of all, they must be early ripe, have a short growing season, so that in a short summer the tomatoes can ripen, so to speak, in the bud. Medium-sized tomatoes should be preferred, since the varieties of tomatoes for the Leningrad region with large fruits, even designed specifically for greenhouses, risk not ripening before the onset of cold weather.
Tomato seedling for the Leningrad region is grown in the usual way. But there is a moment to be fulfilled: hardening of seedlings. To do this, about half a month before planting the plants in the ground, containers with seedlings should be taken out onto the street or into a cold greenhouse for several hours every day. Thus, the resistance of tomatoes to bad weather is developed, which is important in conditions of a rather cold summer season. You also need to keep in mind that on heavy, clay and acidic soils, tomatoes grow poorly. It is better to take care of the looseness and airiness of the soil in advance, using the means available for this, such as sawdust, compost, etc.
It is very important to observe the timing of the planting of seedlings of tomatoes in the ground, especially in such a harsh climate as the Leningrad region. Usually, early varieties for the Leningrad region are planted in the greenhouse on June 1 or 2, the age of the seedlings should not be less than fifty days. If the variety is ultra early, then the planting should be made before April 15-20, preferably in the greenhouse was heated.
Seven important zones where Leningradskaya is the first
The choice of variety for planting depends on the zoning zone intended for its cultivation. A good harvest is obtained only from tomatoes that are suitable for these conditions. There are seven such zones in total, otherwise they can be called light zones, and for each of them, breeders create varieties that have a certain set of characteristics. The main difference between the zones of zoning is the light season, more precisely, its length, it depends on how well tomatoes can be grown without using additional lighting. The Leningrad Region is the light zone No. 1 in tomato cultivation, in which in the autumn-winter months it is simply impossible to grow tomatoes because of the short light period, unless additional lighting is used.
The Leningrad region can be attributed to the zone of risky farming, so in order to get a guaranteed good harvest, it is better to use for growing varieties of tomatoes for the Leningrad region with early and ultra early ripening, which are suitable not only for the greenhouse, but also for open ground. It is important not to forget about timely fertilization and respect for crop rotation - tomatoes should not grow in the same place for more than 3 seasons to prevent soil depletion.
The main characteristics of tomato varieties for the Leningrad region
- good low light tolerance;
- early maturation;
- must be resistant to harmful diseases;
- independence from low temperatures in the formation of ovaries;
- excellent taste due to the accumulation of sugars with maximum use of solar energy.
The breeders turned out to bring not so many of the best varieties of tomatoes, which are inherent in these characteristics. There are only about thirty registered in the State Register. Below are just a few of these varieties.
It belongs to mid-seasoned lettuce varieties, it can grow both in the greenhouse and in the open air, but with the use of covering material. Bush high, be sure to need a garter and timely pasyonka. Not very large fruit in the form of a pear weighs from 60 to 120 grams with a pronounced tomato aroma and taste. This variety adapts well to different weather conditions. Fusarium and tobacco mosaic virus is not sick.
Early ripe grade for cultivation in the greenhouse or under film shelter. The height of the bush can reach one meter, therefore, requires a garter and pasynkovanie. Elastic fruits are egg-shaped, the color is bright orange, weighing about 130 grams with dense flesh and excellent sweet taste, mass ripening occurs in the second half of July. Normally refers to temperature extremes, resistant to disease. On one square meter it ripens up to nine kilograms of beautiful tomatoes, perfectly suitable for preservation.
Tall medium early hybrid (105-110 days). Is a modified analogue of the hybrid Evpator. This variety feels great in the greenhouse and in the open. On the brush 4-6 red flat-rounded tomatoes with dense pulp of sweet taste weighing 130-150 grams are formed. Resistant to diseases, has a good yield - up to 10 kg / m2. Very well tolerated transportation.
Indeterminant hybrid, maturity average (105-115 days). Bush neat, srednerosly. On a brush 4-6 red fruits of a flat-rounded form are formed with dense pulp and excellent taste. The variety is extremely productive - up to 25 kg / m2. Resistant to diseases.
Indeterminant early hybrid (100-105 days). On the hand, there are usually 5-7 red flat-rounded tomatoes with dense sweet pulp, quite fruitful - from 5 to 7.5 kg / m2. The variety has resistance to tomato diseases.
Greenhouse Tomato Varieties
In greenhouses, indeterminate varieties are usually grown, which are well tolerated by frost and typical tomato diseases, stably productive, capable of high-quality fruiting, even when there is a shortage of sunlight. In order to compensate for this lack of additional lighting is recommended.
Early hybrid (90-95 days), having excellent resistance to tomato diseases. Bush srednerosly, height up to 80 cm. The fruit is red, resembling a tennis ball, smooth, medium-sized (up to 80 grams), the taste is closer to sour. Good for temperature extremes.
Mid-season variety, the plant is tall, although it has small leaves. Red fruits are round, slightly flattened, weighing about 60 grams, taste sweet and sour. Resistant to major diseases, the yield is consistently high.
Medium late variety (115-130 days), intended only for greenhouses. The plant is tall, powerful, the leaf is large, weakly corrugated. The fruit is red, almost round, with an orange tint, slightly ribbed, sweetish taste, weight 80-130 grams. It tolerates bad weather, stably forms the ovary, even when there is a lack of light. Harvest - 6-7 kg / m2. The disadvantages include exposure to tobacco mosaic
The best varieties of stunted tomatoes
Very early undersized variety (80-85 days). The bush is quite compact, not requiring staking, with five floral tassels, on which 5-7 fruits are placed. Red round fruit, smooth, weighing about 80 grams, pleasant taste. It is resistant to tomato diseases. Harvest consistently high.
Medium early variety (110-115 days). Bush low about 50 cm, compact, very convenient to grow it in open ground. The fruit is small, red, oval-rounded, weighing about 60 grams. Begins to ripen by August, yield - 3-3.5 kg / m2. Among the shortcomings - prone to phytophthora.
Determinant early variety. Small bush, compact with light green small leaves. The red fruit is almost round, slightly flattened, not very dense, the average weight is about 150 grams, with excellent taste, well suited for salads. Resistant to phytophthora. The yield is 4-4.5 kg / m2.
Medium early determinant variety (115-130 days). The bush has an average branching and small leaves, you do not need to tie and stepchild. The red fruit is round, almost perfectly smooth, with a bright tomato aroma and taste, weighing about 100 grams. It has disease resistance, well tolerated high humidity.
Soil Gribovsky 1180
Early ripe determinant variety (95-105 days). Low bush (from 40 to 55 cm), compact. Red, round, slightly flattened fruit, with weak ribbing, weighing up to 100 grams. The yield is 4-4.5 kg / m2. It tolerates bad weather, suitable for cultivation in the Black Earth. Sowing seeds immediately in the soil. Among the shortcomings, it does not tolerate excessive moisture, there is bacterial rot and phytophthora.
Early undersized variety (85-95 days). Red almost round fruits, medium-sized, even, weighing up to 80 grams, with excellent taste. Very good in salads and in winter canned. The variety is not prone to cracking, resistant to the phytophthora. Normally tolerates extreme weather conditions. The yield is 4-4.5 kg / m2. Well transported.
Stamb mid-season variety (100-115 days). The bush is quite low, neat, does not require a garter and a shovel. The fruit is red, slightly flattened, medium-sized, weighing up to 50 grams, taste with a slight sourness. It is very unpretentious in care, well tolerates bad weather, resistant to the main tomato diseases. Harvest consistently high.
Besides the fact that tomatoes themselves are very tasty and widely used in cooking, they are also extremely useful.
- Restore the water-salt balance.
- Chromium, which is rich in tomatoes, helps regulate glucose levels in people with diabetes.
- High content of chlorogenic and coumarin acids protect against carcinogens, which are formed during smoking.
- Thanks to potassium and B vitamins, blood pressure decreases, “bad” cholesterol disappears, which has a beneficial effect on the body of hypertensive patients, etc.
To learn how to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, you can learn from this video: