Pepper is considered a little capricious plant, so many are afraid to grow it. In fact, everything is not as difficult as it seems. Caring for him is almost the same as for other vegetable crops. Just need to remember that pepper loves heat, and it can be grown in open ground not in every region of Russia. In the northern regions, this vegetable is grown in greenhouses, but residents of the middle lane are more fortunate, and you can safely grow peppers right in the garden.
The best yield can certainly be achieved in greenhouse conditions. But if this is not possible, open ground is also a good fit. The main thing is to take into account some important nuances. So consider all the secrets of growing peppers in the open field, from preparing seeds for seedlings to planting pepper seedlings.
When to start sowing seedlings
Sowing time depends primarily on the selected variety. The seed packages indicate when the peppers should be planted on the seedlings.Tip! Pay attention to the precocity of the variety, the time of planting depends on it. If your region is still cold at this time, take a mid-season or late variety so that the seedlings do not die from frost.
Usually seedlings for open ground are grown later than for greenhouses. It is necessary to determine when the frosts will end and the soil will warm up well. We will make a start from this date, deciding when to plant seeds for seedlings of peppers. Early ripening varieties of peppers are sown 2 months before planting into the ground, mid-season ones - 65-70 days later, and later ones should be planted not earlier than 75 days before planting on a bed.
Seedlings for open ground can be planted in early June, when there will be comfortable conditions for good plant growth. But in the greenhouse pepper can be planted since the end of April.Important! Counting the time of sowing and disembarking, consider whether a picking will be carried out. After all, when transplanting seedlings, growth slows down, and this will delay the landing for another week or two.
Such calculations are very important. Sowing the seeds later than the deadline, you risk never waiting for the fruits on time. But even worse, sow ahead of time. In this case, before the time of planting, the seedlings will become tall and spreading, and ovaries or flowers will appear on it. It would seem that this will only accelerate the time of ripening pepper. But on the contrary, during transplantation, the plant will fully and completely give all its power to restore the root. And the resulting ovary is likely to wither, or the fruit will ripen very slowly. Fruiting will slow down greatly due to the long development of the ovaries that have already appeared.
Preparing seeds for planting
Many themselves harvest seeds from the fall, in this way it is possible from year to year to collect seeds from the harvested crop, and not to spend money on purchased ones. But, if you are planting pepper for the first time or want to try some new variety, then in specialized stores there is a huge selection of different types of pepper.
When buying seeds, consider the packing time. Remember that suitable for planting seeds should stand no more than 3 years. In the fourth year, germination decreases. Usually on the package is indicated the date of packing, and not the collection of the seeds themselves, so that their suitability decreases by another year. Take only those that were packed no more than two years ago.
In order to start sowing with peace of mind, you can check seed germination. This procedure will help to separate the viable seeds from those that can not germinate. This is done with a salt solution, which can be prepared by combining:
- 1 liter of water;
- 2 tablespoons of salt.
Mix well the solution so that the salt is completely dissolved. We drop the pepper seeds in a container with water and wait until they themselves begin to separate from each other. Viable seeds will remain at the bottom, and the dead will float. Some do not use this method due to the fact that along with the bad seeds they can float up just heavily dried. However, this method is still effective and very simple. After separation, the upper seeds must be harvested with a spoon, and those that are at the bottom of the strain, washed with clean water and dried on a sheet of paper.
You can also just sort the seeds with their own hands. Small and too large are thrown away, and only the seeds of medium size are left.
Sowing on seedlings
Before planting, seeds should be soaked for several hours or a day so that they soften. Now you can start sowing, but first determine what is better to plant the seeds. For such purposes, use several options: boxes, individual cups and pots, special tablets of peat.
Most of all for the seedlings of peppers fit the last two options. Pepper is much easier to plant from individual containers, and without harm to the plant itself and the root system. Seedling boxes are not so good to use, because getting the seedlings out of the box can greatly damage the root and thin stem. As an option, you can hold a pick in individual cups, but it will take more time. Especially pepper does not respond well to transplants.
It is advisable to carry out a picking only in the case when you have bought a new sort of pepper, and you do not know for sure whether it will well rise. Then, instead of wasting space on the windowsill and cups, you can sow the seeds in one box, and after they sprout, transplant the strongest sprouts into separate containers. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the root. Remove the plant should be with a large amount of soil, and in any case not to tamp the soil in the cup.
So, in each cup, to a depth of two centimeters, we place 2 or 3 seeds. Try to keep them not too close to the surface, so that the root system can develop normally, but not too deep so as not to damp the sprout.
Before sowing, the soil must be moistened, but carefully so as not to turn it into a swamp. You can use the sprayer. If you plant seeds in a box, it is important to respect the distance to 7 centimeters. The first time you need to cover the seed containers with a film, create a greenhouse effect.
Preparing the soil for growing seedlings
Soil for seedlings can be bought in a specialty store, but if you are not looking for easy ways, you can prepare it yourself. The components are the most accessible, different options are possible. The main components are:
- Peat or peat mixture.
- Sod land.
- Lodged files.
Proportions and components may be different. For example, it is possible to connect peat, earth, sand and humus in equal parts. It all depends on the components you have.
Tip! For growing seedlings of pepper is not suitable soil from flower beds and flower beds, where vegetables are grown.
And if you buy soil in the store, watch the pH level, which should be indicated on the package. For pepper, the norm will be from 7 to 7.2, as he does not like acidic soils.
So that the soil does not contain viruses and fungi, it must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, or if the seedlings are small, you can heat the soil with a conventional oven.
Since pepper belongs to thermophilic vegetables, the most important thing when growing seedlings is to maintain the right temperature. In order for seedlings to grow and develop well, it must beat from +24 ° C to +28 ° C. If the room is cooler, you can use lamps for heating. Not only air should be heated, but also soil.Tip! If you keep the seedlings on the windowsill, it would be good to warm them. So, the soil will be better to keep warm.
Planted seeds should be covered with foil until the first shoots appear. You cannot open the film earlier, so you have to be patient. After sprouting, the seedlings especially need a large amount of light in order for the sprouts to grow strong and to grow well. Glasses or boxes of seedlings should be kept on the south side of the house. In the period of germination, it is desirable to also highlight the lamps.
Note! So that the cups closer to the window do not block the light of the others, you can put them all on the tray, and put a plate under the edge of the window sill, which will give the tray the necessary inclination. So, the cups farthest from the window will also receive the right amount of light.
If you notice that the sprouts become too thin and elongated, this means that the seedlings do not have enough light. You may need to leave the lamps on all day. When the pepper grows in a common box, the sprouts can interfere with the ingress of sunlight to each other. In this case, it is necessary to break through the seedlings.
It is very important to keep the soil moist, avoid overdrying and excessive watering. Pepper seedlings should not be watered with cold tap water, it should be 2 ° C warmer than the soil temperature.
For all the time growth is necessary to hold 2 subcortex. For these purposes, manure is well suited to be transported with water (1 part manure to 10 parts water). A couple of hours the mixture should stand, and then you can water it with pepper. Also purchased feedings are used, for example, biohumus.
The hardening of seedlings of pepper should begin a week or two before planting in the ground. The purpose of quenching is to accustom plants to changes in air temperature and humidity levels. To do this, boxes with seedlings carried out on an open balcony or on the street, first for a couple of hours a day, and then you will need to increase the time. Pepper seedlings in open ground especially need to be hardened, because it will definitely have to face different weather conditions face to face.
Planting pepper seedlings in the ground
It is difficult to name the exact date when planting pepper seedlings in open ground, however, you can accurately name the signs that will help determine whether it is time or not. First, the soil temperature of the soil should be heated to +15 ° C. Only then the peppers will take root well in the new place. Secondly, it is possible to plant pepper only when it grows up to twenty centimeters in height. Each sprout must be at least 9 leaves.
Choose a well-lit place for planting pepper seedlings where strong winds will not fall. The ideal time to plant pepper is evening. After all, planting pepper seedlings in open ground is a stress for tender shoots, and in the scorching sun they will weaken even more. When digging holes, take into account the height of the cups from under the seedlings. It should be slightly higher so that all the soil from the tank fits into the hole.
Important! If you grow both sweet and bitter pepper varieties, remember that they cannot grow on the same bed. In this case, sweet pepper will also become bitter.
The distance between low-growing varieties should be about 35-40 cm, and between their rows - from 50 to 60 cm. Tall peppers are planted at a greater distance of about 60 cm between the bushes and 60 cm between the rows.
Pepper transplantation begins with the preparation of the soil. In order to disinfect the soil, it is necessary to pre-water the wells with boiling water, this will also destroy pests. Next, carefully remove the seedlings from the cups to preserve the integrity of the soil. You can add various fertilizers to the wells. Strongly deepen sprouts is not worth it, since it will greatly slow down growth. Once again pour water into the hole and gently fill it with earth. If desired, you can mumble the bed with peat, this will help to retain moisture and heat in the soil.
The first time after planting pepper seedlings, it is desirable to use film covers. First of all, it is not necessary to wait for a special growth, the seedlings will get stronger only after a week. For now, pepper can only be irrigated with a small amount of water. To loosen the soil is necessary only superficially, so as not to affect the delicate root system.
Planting pepper seedlings in the ground is one of the most important stages of growing this vegetable. Much depends on where and how the peppers are planted. So, if you want to get a good result of your work, and grow a tasty pepper, you must follow the above rules. Good harvest!
ReviewsIrina, 45, Samara. For many years we have been growing peppers in our garden. I noticed that it is very important to plant seedlings in time in time. If this is done before the earth warms up, the harvest will have to wait a very long time.
Valentina, 53 years old, Tomsk Pepper is a little capricious culture for me, but when there is a place on the beds, I try to plant several rows. I plant later than all other vegetables, and choose a place where the sun goes well. Fertilizing 2-3 times before disembarking, and the same after. With this care grows well.