Potatoes - a permanent representative of the crops that gardeners make the list of annual plantings. One of the issues worrying potato growers is the depth of planting potatoes.
After all, this parameter is very important. Many gardeners consider it a good protection of tubers from frost. But how does depth affect the germination and yield of potatoes? Do I need to take into account the composition of the soil? How to plant potatoes, taking into account all the nuances? Do varietal characteristics depend on the seeding depth of tubers? All these questions are very important, especially for beginner potato growers.
In our article we will try to highlight the above topics.
What is important to consider when planting potatoes
Of course, the composition of the soil and the region in which the crop is grown. Potatoes are planted from late March to May, depending on climatic conditions. The south of the area, the earlier start landing. In the northern areas should begin work in May.
Planting depth of tubers
The depth of planting potatoes is an important factor on which many plant growth indicators depend:
- whether there will be enough moisture;
- is there enough heat for development;
- whether it is possible to provide aeration of the soil.
The depth of planting is determined depending on the type of soil and the size of the seed. Small tubers should not be deeply sealed.
Share the deep, medium and shallow depths of planting potatoes.
- Deep Such a planting is considered to be such that tubers are placed in the ground for 10 cm or more. As a result, the plants are well formed, but harvest will be more difficult. It is therefore suitable for sandy soils and dry areas. Also used in growing technologies without hilling bushes.
- Average. With this type of planting, the tubers are buried by 5-10 cm. It is good to withstand such a parameter on loams and heavy soils.
- Small. Seeding parameters - from 5 to 7 cm. Recommended for clay soils and small seeds.
There is another interesting technology of planting, in which the tubers are placed on top of loosened soil and covered with mulch on top. The best options are for shelter:
- rotted sawdust with sand;
- a mixture of humus and straw;
To improve the nutrition of potatoes, mineral components (fertilizers) are added to the mulch. Especially good to use this method on clay soils. To protect the tubers from greening, the mulch is filled again with a plant height of about 25 cm.
When choosing the depth to which the potatoes will be planted, it is necessary to take into account the temperature of warming up the earth. In early spring, when it is not heated enough, the planting is done to a depth of no more than 5-6 cm. When the planting dates are precisely observed, the tubers are buried 6-8 cm into the ground. And if you have slightly moved the period to a later time, then the earth is already quite warm and dry, it is well ventilated, so a depth of 10 cm will be the most suitable. On sandy soils, this indicator can be safely increased to 12 cm.
Based on the foregoing, you can determine the run-up in terms of the depth of planting potatoes from 5 cm to 12 cm. Above all, do not forget to maintain the same depth of tubers throughout the area allocated for potatoes.
The ratio of tubers size and planting depth can also be determined:
- Non-standard and small ones have a small supply of forces, therefore they land at a depth of not less than 6 cm and not more than 12 cm. When planting potatoes in the ridges, the minimum depth is 8-9 cm.
- Large potatoes are supplied with an adequate supply of nutrients. Therefore, they develop faster and are able to easily overcome the planting depth from 10 to 12 cm. For Dutch varieties, planting depths in ridges of 20 cm are permissible, but local varieties are not ready for such a load.
- In the case of planting potatoes in parts, be sure to ensure that in each segment were sprouts. This technology requires the deepening of only a shallow depth to prevent rotting of planting material.
How to plant seed
What do you mean right? This concept includes not only the term and depth, but also the scheme of planting potatoes. There are several species that are successfully used by potato growers. At the same time, planting density is maintained depending on the composition of the soil.
- Thick potatoes are planted in early varieties and on fertile soils. This option is well suited for small or sliced potatoes.
- Low-fertilized and poor soils require more rare planting of potatoes. This scheme is used for large tubers.
It is very important what distance between rows when planting potatoes will be maintained.
Basic landing options
On the crest
A common method from ancient times. The location of the tubers 70x30. In this method, the selected part of the site is dug up, smooth strings are laid out with a cord and laid with a depth of 5-10 cm. Humus (0.5 shovels) and wood ash are introduced into the furrow (1 tbsp). The dose is repeated every 30 cm of the furrow. Put potatoes on top and covered with earth. It is better to do it from two sides to get a comb in the shape of the letter "M". The height of the ridge 9-10 cm, width - about 22 cm.
This option requires a one-time hilling of potatoes in the process of growth with simultaneous weeding. The final height of the ridge is 30 cm. It protects the potatoes from drying out during the dry season and from moisture accumulation during the rains.
Advantages of the technology:
- early landing is possible;
- good warming of the comb under the sun;
- the rapid pace of cultural development;
- the formation of powerful and healthy bushes;
- ease of harvesting;
- yield increase by 20%.
Under the shovel
The most common and simple method of planting potatoes.
The depth of the furrows that are made on the ground is 5 cm. The arrangement of rows is at least 70 cm from each other, and the distance between the tubers is 30 cm. But look at the number of sprouts. The more of them, the longer the distance between the tubers to maintain.Important! This method requires precise timing of the landing.
It will be optimal to plant potatoes when the temperature reaches 8 ° C on the surface of the soil, then you can be sure that at a depth of 30 cm it has completely thawed out. If you skip this period, then the moisture useful for the potato will go away, and the harvest will noticeably decrease. It should be noted a disadvantage of the method - the dependence of the state of tubers on weather conditions. Waterlogging of potatoes is possible even at such a small depth. This threatens with the death of the roots at the beginning of the season and the decline in the quality of storage after harvest. And during the growth period, plants are susceptible to fusarium (with heat and humidity) and rhizoctonia (cool end of summer).
Well planted potatoes by this method in the arid region.
Trenches are prepared in the fall, digging them down to a depth of 25-30 cm and filling them with organic matter. Use the mixture:
- wet hay.
A distance of 70 cm is maintained between trenches. In spring, the trench depth will be 5 cm after the precipitation of humus. Potato tubers are placed in a trench at a distance of 30 cm from each other, sprinkled with soil. Additional nutrition when planting in a trench does not require potatoes. It was made in the fall in sufficient quantities. In addition, organic provides heating of tubers. Trenches sprinkle a little earth and add a layer of mulch to retain moisture. The thickness of the mulch layer is kept no more than 6 cm. As the bushes grow, it can be poured. The disadvantage of this method are:
- Waterlogging of potatoes in the period of heavy rainfall. To avoid this, in regions with high humidity along the edge of the ridges lay grooves that provide water flow. The depth of such grooves is from 10 to 15 cm.
- Complexity Trenching requires considerable effort and a large amount of compost and mulch.
On organics in a container
For this method, you must create a stationary ridge containers. The height of the building is about 30 cm, and the width is 1 meter. Location in length must be observed from north to south. The walls of the container spread out of logs, bricks, slate, boards. Between containers withstand passages from 50 to 90 cm, which must be mulched (sand, sawdust). Capacity to fill with organic matter:
- bottom layer - plant residues;
- the next is manure or compost;
- top - ground from the passages.
The number of rows of potatoes in one container is not more than two. Tubers are planted in a staggered manner with an interval of 30 cm. Advantages:
- Plants get enough light. Each row is located on the edge of the container. This leads to increased yields.
- Decorative landings.
- Duration of operation of the ridges. After harvesting the potatoes, the container is seeded with siderata, and filled with organic matter before winter.
- The safety of nutrients. They are protected by the walls of the container from leaching.
- Ergonomics and aesthetics. Ridge care is simple and convenient. Hilling and digging is not required. Enough loosening. The plants do not get sick and after cleaning the tubers are very clean and well kept.
- The possibility of early landing.
Many gardeners choose planting potatoes for non-woven materials, barrels and other extraordinary methods. In any case, you need to maintain the recommended planting depth, depending on the type of potato, soil composition and climatic conditions.
The harvest is sure to justify all the effort.