White cabbage belongs to vegetable crops, best of all acclimatized to the conditions of the middle zone. That is why Russian gardeners and summer residents successfully cultivate it on their plots. In addition, cabbage is one of the main ingredients of traditional Slavic dishes. There is nothing difficult in cultivating this crop, but it is only those who observed the dressings that can pick up large elastic heads of cabbages from the beds — no garden crop will ripen without fertilizers.
How to feed the cabbage seedlings, what fertilizers should be used at various stages of crop growth, and what is more preferable: a folk remedy or purchased supplements? Answers to all these questions can be found in this article.
How many times in a season do you need to fertilize cabbage
Feeding cabbage seedlings, as well as the amount and composition of fertilizers depend on several factors. Among them:
- Variety of vegetables. The cabbage with the early growing season ripens faster than the late-ripening varieties of the culture, therefore, the early cabbage will have to be fed a smaller number of times. There are ultra-fast hybrid varieties with very short growing season - such cabbage will have to be fertilized only a couple of times per season.
- Variety of cabbage. After all, there is not only a white variety, but also Kohlrabi, Savoy, Beijing and several other varieties of this vegetable found in domestic gardens. All varieties have their own characteristics; they need different fertilizer complexes for normal development.
- The composition of the soil on the site also plays an important role - the poorer the ground on the beds, the more organic matter or mineral components need to be added to it.
- The composition of fertilizers may vary depending on weather conditions: rainfall, air temperature.
Than feed beds in the fall
As practice shows, fertilizer for cabbage for the winter is more effective than the spring dressing seedlings. The fact is that in the case of autumn procedures, the components of the fertilizer have more time for complete decomposition in the soil.
To a greater extent this applies to phosphorus and potassium, which cabbage is so necessary for the formation of a head of cabbage or a fork. Cabbage cannot assimilate these substances unchanged, in order for the plant to be saturated with potassium and phosphorus, they must change their structure.
It is necessary to carry out autumn dressing by digging or plowing up the soil on the plot. The depth of digging should be, somewhere, 40-45 cm - this is approximately equal to the length of the spade bayonet.
In the fall, gardeners, as a rule, use organic fertilizers. Their number per square meter is:
- If dressing is carried out with cow manure, 7 kg of fertilizer is enough (both fresh manure and rotted manure are suitable).
- When bird droppings are used as fertilizer, no more than 300 grams are needed.
The use of organic fertilizers consists not only in the saturation of the soil with microelements, but also in the formation of humus with them, which is especially necessary for loams and sandy soils.
If the land on the plot is fertile, it is better to fertilize it with the NPK complex, which contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
It is important to understand that an excess of mineral components in the soil is just as dangerous for cabbage as the lack of fertilizers, so you must strictly follow the recommendations and proportions for the preparation of mixtures.
The optimal combination of mineral components for autumn feeding the land under the cabbage is as follows:
- 40 grams of double superphosphate;
- 40 grams of potassium sulfate;
- 40 grams of urea (animal protein.
This amount, dissolved in water, should be enough for a square meter plot.
How to fertilize the soil for seedlings
Because of the improperly compounded fertilizer ratio, cabbage can become sick with one of the most dangerous diseases for this crop - the black leg. The disease manifests itself in the appearance of the fungus - a black shingles around the bottom of the stem of the seedlings. As a result of the disease, the stem of the plant rots, and the seedlings simply perish - it is impossible to save the already infected cabbage.
To prevent this and other possible troubles, you must follow the instructions on the preparations for feeding cabbage seedlings.
To make a substrate for seedlings is better from such parts:
- river sand;
- sod land.
It is recommended that calcined components be calcined in an oven in order to disinfect the soil and destroy all bacteria. After this stage, they switch to mineral additives — ten liters of substrate will be needed:
- A glass of wood ash, which should prevent the infection of seedlings with fungus and normalize the acidity of the soil.
- 50 grams of potassium sulfate will be needed in a dry form.
- 70 grams of superphosphate is recommended not to be added as a powder, but rather to dissolve the mineral substance in water and pour the substrate onto it (this will make the phosphorus more “digestible” for young cabbage).
Such soil preparation for sowing seeds is suitable for white cabbage of all varieties and different ripening terms.
Fertilizers for cabbage seedlings
Today, cabbage seedlings are grown in two ways: with and without a dive. As you know, picking suspends the development of plants, because they have to re-acclimatize, take root - this takes some time and does not suit those gardeners who seek to harvest as soon as possible.
Important! After picking, cabbage seedlings have to build up the root system and green mass in order to survive in an unfamiliar environment. This makes the plants stronger, improves their immunity, and is a preparation for transplanting into open ground.
Many gardeners are now using the method of growing seedlings of cabbage in cassettes or peat tablets. So you can germinate seeds of high quality and in a short time get seedlings with cotyledon leaves. These methods require the obligatory dive of cabbage, because the space in the tablets and cassettes is very limited, although the most nutritious for the seedlings.
After picking, cabbage seedlings must be fed to stimulate root growth and speed up the process of plant adaptation. Because of this, the total number of dressings increases, in contrast to the method of growing seedlings without diving.
After the cabbage pick, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are most needed - these are the ingredients that make up the soil with seedlings. For these purposes, it is convenient to use ready-made fertilizer complexes, but it is quite possible to prepare the composition yourself.
So, if a seedling is grown without a dive stage, it needs:
- During the formation of the second true leaflet on cabbage. Use for this any complex fertilizers. It is best to use the method of spraying the seedlings, rather than applying top dressing with watering. The solution is prepared in proportion of 5 grams per liter of water. The method of irrigation of seedlings improves the absorption of fertilizers, and also reduces the risk of infection of cabbage with fungal diseases.
- Before the cabbage seedlings begin to harden, it needs to be re-fed. At this stage, plants need nitrogen and potassium, so a mixture of urea and potassium sulfate can be used as a fertilizer - 15 grams of each substance is dissolved in a bucket of water. Bring this feeding method of irrigation of land under the seedlings.
When cabbage seedlings are grown with a pick, she will need the following feedings:
- A week after the pick, cabbage seedlings are fed for the first time. To do this, use complex fertilizers dissolved in water in the proportion of 15 grams per liter, or independently prepare a mixture of one-component compositions (potassium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and simple superphosphate).
- 10-14 days after the first fertilizer, they repeat the course. At this stage, you can use a solution of 5 grams of potassium sulfate, 5 grams of nitrate and 10 grams of superphosphate.
- A few days before the proposed transplanting of cabbage into the ground, the last feeding of seedlings is carried out. Now the most important thing is to strengthen the immunity of plants so that they have enough strength and “health” to acclimatize in new conditions. For this reason, the main component of the fertilizer in the third stage should be potassium. Such a composition is very effective: 8 grams of potassium sulfate + 5 grams of granulated superphosphate + 3 grams of ammonium nitrate.
The seedlings transplanted to the garden are awaiting a difficult stage of adaptation, therefore fertilizing does not stop after planting cabbage in the ground. Their frequency and composition depend on the variety and rate of ripening of the cabbage.
How fertilizing depends on maturity
Fertilizer for cabbage seedlings early ripe or late is no different, but this is only the case while the plants are in the house. As soon as the seedlings have been transplanted into the ground, the gardener should separate the early ripening varieties from the species from long-growing vegetation, as they need different fertilizers.
So, early cabbage needs 2-3 feedings for the entire season, whereas late-ripe vegetable varieties will have to be fertilized at least 4 times.
Fertilizers can be used for this complex, combining organic and mineral components.
Early ripening varieties are characterized by rapid growth and rapid growth of green mass. In order for the plants to have enough nutrients at the growth stage, they need to be introduced into the soil in time.Important! The average weight of heads of early ripe cabbage is 2 kg, while forks of late vegetables can weigh about 6-7 kg.
How and with what to feed transplanted cabbage seedlings, primarily depends on the degree of soil preparation at the site. If organic matter or a mineral complex was applied to all the beds in the spring, then the seedlings should be strengthened only with nitrogen-containing compounds, for example, ammonium nitrate or urea. If manure or bird droppings were dug up with soil in the beds from the fall, then after planting the cabbage they use complex compositions of mineral fertilizers.
Early Variety Fertilizer
Fertilizers for early cabbage are applied in three stages:
- For the first time, plants in the garden are fertilized 15-20 days after transplantation. This should be done in the evening, when it becomes cool outside. The earth before it is carefully watered. Such safety measures are aimed at protecting the fragile roots of young cabbage from burns. As mentioned above, for the first time use nitrogen or mineral complex (depending on the preparation of the soil).
- In 15-20 days after the first stage it is necessary to carry out the second feeding. For these purposes, it is best to use slurry or pre-prepared solution of mullein. Make it for 2-3 days before making the beds. To do this, dissolve a pound of cow dung in a bucket of water, and allow the solution to settle.
- The third fertilizer cycle should be foliar. A solution of boric acid to spray the green mass of bushes. Prepare a product of 5 grams of boron dissolved in 250 ml of boiling water. The cooled mixture is poured into a bucket of cold water and the cabbage is processed. This should be done when there is no sun: in the early morning, in the evening or on an overcast day. Boron is able to prevent the forks from cracking, and if they are already deformed, 5 grams of molybdenum ammonium is added to the composition.
For cabbage, which grows not in the garden, but in the greenhouse, we need another, additional feeding. It is performed as follows: 40 grams of potassium sulphate are diluted in a bucket of water and a half-liter jar of wood ash is placed on the floor. It is necessary to carry out fertilizer with such composition several days before harvesting. The active ingredients of the last feeding help to improve the keeping quality of cabbage heads.
Late cabbage fertilizer
Late-ripening varieties need two additional additional feedings:
- Using mineral components.
- With the addition of cow dung or Baker's yeast.
Preparing formulations should be the same as for early cabbage. However, it is necessary to take into account that the root system of late cabbage is slightly weaker than the early ripe species, the roots need to be strengthened with a higher dose of phosphorus and potassium. The proportions of these components need to be increased.
A big problem for autumn cabbage varieties - pests and fungal infections. To combat these ailments, it is common to use wood ash, which gardeners “powder” leaves with. If it is important to preserve the marketable appearance of the heads, the ashes can be replaced with salt baths - between dressings, the bushes are poured from the watering can with salt water (150 g of salt are taken from 10 liters).
In order not to saturate the heads with nitrates and insecticides, farmers often use folk remedies. To combat insects, you can use herbal infusions of celandine, burdock and wormwood. In addition, celandine is able to further protect the cabbage from late blight.
Results and conclusions
Growing cabbage seedlings at home, undoubtedly, increases yields and improves the quality of the product. But in order for the seedlings to be strong and viable, you need to be able to feed them correctly, because for delicate plants both the lack of minerals and their excess are destructive.
After transplanting seedlings to the ground, fertilizing is not stopped, on the contrary, the gardener must strictly follow the schedule of fertilizer application. Only in this way will it be possible to grow large and tight cabbages that can be stored for a long time and will not crack.