Cultivation of gladioli is a fascinating and useful occupation. A wide variety of varieties attracts flower growers. Beautiful inflorescences of various shapes and colors are able to transform the plot. But some gardeners instead of luxurious plants see small inflorescences, twisted trunks on a bed. The main reason lies in the fact that inexperienced lovers pay attention only to the care of flowers. And often they lose sight of another important step in growing a flower - the prevention and treatment of diseases or pest control.
What diseases are found on gladioli
The main diseases of gladioli that occur on plants are divided into infectious and non-infectious. Often the infection occurs with seed or through the soil. Some pathogens are carried by pests that attack gladioli. As a result of defeat, gladioli cease to bloom, severe damage leads to the death of plants. Therefore, the planted flowers are regularly inspected in order to take the necessary measures in time, carry out preventive measures. It is necessary to know the signs of diseases and types of pests that reduce the vitality of gladioli.
Gladioli are susceptible to the diseases that affect all bulbous cultures. But if onions these diseases are less dangerous, then gladioli tolerate them harder. This is due to the constant work of breeders on the improvement of cultivars. Many modern species can not be grown without the constant use of special tools. Most of the pathogens that cause diseases live in the soil. Therefore, the fight against them is quite difficult.
Pathogens can be divided into groups:
- Viruses. Viral diseases spread in all regions and are not completely curable.
- Mushrooms Fungal infections often affect planting gladioli on acidic soils.
Infected plants spores or through the root system. Some gladiolus diseases develop on weeds, which are often the main carriers. In addition, the causes of gladioli diseases can easily become:
- adverse climatic conditions;
- failure to comply with the requirements of agricultural engineering;
- illiterate variety choice.
Before you start growing and breeding gladioli, stock up with useful information about possible problems. The article will list the main pests, as well as gladioli diseases and their treatment, photos of each problem.
Fungal diseases of gladioli are also called rot.
Among them the most dangerous and most common is fusarium or dry rot.
This disease is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.Gladioli. Among modern varieties, gladioli resistant to this insidious disease have not yet been bred.
The causes of the disease are:
- a combination of overmoistening of the soil and damp warm weather;
- excess nitrogen in the diet;
- planting gladiolus on wet heavy soils;
- strong plant thickening.
How to determine the defeat of Fusarium?
Externally, the disease manifests itself at first by curvature and thinning of the leaves, and then yellowing and drying out. If you look at the corm, then there are noticeable red-brown dented spots on it - signs of the disease.
The danger of Fusarium is its widespread distribution. If corms are weakly affected by the disease, this will not save neighboring healthy plants from infection. It is especially important to inspect the material before putting it in storage in order to protect the rest of the gladiolus. At the first signs of Fusarium, corms are removed. If the disease is seen in the plantings, they are dug along with the soil around the plant. To prevent the occurrence of fungal infections can:
- disinfection of corms in a solution of "Fundazol";
- by dusting the planting material with the same preparation before disembarking;
- alternate 15-minute warming (55 ° C) and cooling in cold water.
If infection could not be avoided, then the soil should be treated with thiazone with sand (1: 1). The mixture is introduced in the autumn or spring digging soil.
The next gladiolus disease known to many gardeners is sclerotinia or black dry rot.
Like the previous fungal infection, it has the same reasons for rapid development. But on acidic and moist soils, the cold, wet weather stimulates the spread of the disease. A sign of defeat will be the appearance of small dark spots on the leaves. The leaves become weakened at the base, turn yellow, then dry out. There are no pronounced signs of disease on the corm bulb, but the disease manifests itself during storage. Spots of yellowish tint appear, which with an increase change the color to red-brown, then black. The corm itself becomes hard and rot.
Gladioli of early varieties are more resistant to the disease of dry black rot. Preventive measures and ways to combat the disease are identical to those described above. If the soil is heavy, it will help:
- introduction of coarse sand for planting gladioli;
- reduction of acidity and soil moisture by known methods;
- harvesting corms before the onset of bad weather.
Another serious disease requiring the attention of flower growers is gray mold or botrytis.
Called by the fungus Botrytis gladiolorum. It can develop at any time during the life of gladioli and affects all the organs of a flower.
The leaves are covered with small brown spots with a red border. They grow, changing the color of the leaves, which die off. In wet weather there is a fluffy bloom on the leaves. The stem is cracked, then lies down, and the rot penetrates below. Corm dies. Spores of the fungus are carried by water and wind. Control measures do not differ from other fungal diseases, but you can add a treatment with a solution of baking soda with corms before planting (50 g of powder in a bucket of water).
Less common diseases - penicillous and solid rot, smut, curvularia.
Greater danger to gladiolus is when grown on alkaline and neutral soils.
The most common disease recognized scab.
The tops of the leaves turn yellow, and spots of a red-brown shade form below the plant. Subsequently, they are converted into stripes along the leaves. The leaves rot, the stem breaks at the base. On corm bulbs also form spots. First yellow, then brown. During storage, the spread of the disease is not observed. Before disembarking, scab cleaned and brilliant green treated place cut. Anti-scab agents are ineffective. The best reception will be a sample of healthy material and careful compliance with the requirements of agricultural engineering.
The main disseminators of the disease are nematodes and soil bacteria. An outgrowth is formed at the bottom, premature germination of children can occur. With the disease, flower stalks become less durable, flowers are small, decorativeness of gladioli decreases. To cope with the disease, it is necessary to thoroughly sterilize the soil, destroy diseased gladioli, and pretreatment the tubers with Fundazole. The disease does not occur too often, but it is also dangerous for a number of growing cultivated plants.
Viral diseases of garden gladioli
Flowers may be affected by the disease:
- yellow bean mosaic;
- cucumber mosaic;
- jaundice asters;
- tobacco ring stain;
- Tomato ring spot.
The list speaks for itself, because these diseases are found on other plants.
A common problem is the yellow mosaic virus.
An alternation of dyed and unpainted areas appears on the flowers, which gives the inflorescence a variegation. The flowers themselves become small, and the inflorescences are elongated. The corms acquire tuberosity or, on the contrary, become flat, have a bluish tint. Transmission of the virus of the disease is possible at the time of cutting, corms or their children.
The cucumber mosaic also leads to streaking of the whole plant.
From this disease, gladioli quickly fade, look depressed with deformed peduncles.
With the defeat of mosaics spots can take the form of a closed ring, the leaves begin to curl. The bulbs are shrinking. The carriers of these diseases are pests of gladioli (aphid, thrips). To overcome the mosaic, it is necessary to fight with parasites. Additionally, strict compliance with agrotechnical requirements, the removal of all diseased plants, the choice of healthy planting material is required. It will not be possible to achieve a complete victory over the disease with the help of chemical agents, therefore the prevention of the disease will be the main weapon in the fight against mosaic.
It can lead to the appearance of green-tinged flowers, thin seedlings resembling cereals, curling inflorescences.
List of major pests of garden gladioli
Thrips are pests not only of gladioli, but also of other plants.
Therefore, the fight against them must be waged throughout the site. This insect feeds on sap, which greatly weakens the plants and reduces their decorative effect.
The danger of thrips is increased by its ability to tolerate viral diseases. Strongly affected flowers do not open, inside the bud are parasite larvae.Important! After digging up corms, be sure to treat them with insecticides! During storage, thrips live there.
To combat the pest need to spray planting insecticides and processing bulbs. During the season, spend at least three sprays.
So, called the larva of click beetles. This pest eats away the bulb from the inside.
If this defeat does not lead to the death of gladiolus, then the danger of fungal diseases remains because of the resulting wounds in the tubers. This pest feels good on carrot, potato ridges, in places with a large distribution of wheatgrass. Therefore, planting gladioli after these crops is not worth it.Tip! Good will feel gladiolus after tomatoes, garlic and legumes.
Onion root mite.
In addition to gladioli, lilies, tulips, and hyacinths suffer from this pest. Penetrate the bottom of the bulb and lay eggs. The larvae feed on the juice of gladiolus corms, weaken the plant. To prevent defeat, you need:
- Observe crop rotation. Do not land gladioli after other bulbous.
- Remove material from old scales before storing it.
- Carefully remove plant residues from the site.
- It is necessary to conduct heat treatment and disinfection of tubers.
- Spraying preparations from onion mites.
General preventive measures for the protection of gladioli against diseases and pests
The focus on the site has to be paid to disease prevention. After all, a diseased plant, sometimes, can not be cured. But even novice flower growers can prevent this problem. Therefore, simple recommendations for disease prevention will be useful to all.
When growing gladiolus you need:
- Mandatory compliance with crop rotation. Flowers well carry one place no more than two years in a row. Then they start to get sick more, and a year later a massive disease of flowers can begin. This is due to the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases - rot and fusarium. Nasturtium, marigold, calendula and mustard are good helpers in disinfecting the soil. These plants are planted on the places where gladioli grow. Many growers place their plantings around gladioli, which brings the same effect and helps to avoid disease.
- Planting plants in ventilated areas. This allows you to contain the rapid spread of fungal infections.
- Do not leave the diseased plant near healthy. It is necessary to remove together with the corm and part of the adjacent earthen coma.
- To carry out preventive spraying healthy gladioli. For these purposes, an infusion of garlic is used (it is prepared from 100 g of milled garlic and 10 liters of water) and a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g of money is enough for a bucket of water). Potassium permanganate simultaneously with the disinfection of the soil enriches it with potassium. This treatment is carried out in early September. Chemical compositions are used only in the initial stage of gladioli disease. They are not intended to be treated, but only to protect a number of growing healthy flowers.
- Mulch planting gladiolus pine needles to prevent the appearance of disease. Sphagnum moss is also suitable for preventive purposes.
- Periodically spray gladioli against pests and diseases with preventive solutions of copper oxychloride and copper sulfate. Enough 20 g of the substance in a bucket of water.
- After storage of corms for storage, remove all plant residues in the area to reduce the possibility of wintering pathogens and pests.
These simple activities will allow you to save your favorite varieties for several years and protect them from diseases and pests.