The main difficulties faced by gardeners in the Leningrad Region are increased soil moisture and return frost. To cope with them and grow a great harvest of this root you need to know some rules.
Ground is important for growing carrots. It must be light, loose, it should not be large stones.
Grown in heavy clay soil carrots develop very slowly, with difficulty accumulates starch and sugar, poorly stored. If the soil contains a lot of large stones, the carrots turn out to be deformed.
To improve the structure of the soil, it is dug up twice - in the autumn, when the frosty weather is stable, but the snow has not yet fallen, and in the spring after the snow melts. During the spring digging sand and humus are introduced into the ground. As a rule, it is necessary to bring about a bucket of humus per square meter of bed, the amount of sand depends on the soil, 2 buckets of sand contribute to the heavy clayey soil, and a bucket to the lighter ones.Important! If the soil requires the application of manure, it must be done a year before planting carrots, under the previous culture. Immediately before growing carrots, manure should not be added.
During the spring digging in the soil make a set of fertilizers. Most of all root crops require a sufficient amount of potash fertilizers.
When deciding when to plant carrots in the Leningrad region, you need to know that you can sow in spring and autumn. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages.
Sown in the fall carrot seeds undergo a natural stratification. In this case, carrot seeds sprout together, quickly, their growing power increases. They do not suffer from pests of carrots, for example, from carrot flies. Late varieties of carrots have enough time to fully ripen, are better stored in the future.
Minuses of autumn planting - carrot seeds can ascend during the thaw, when the frost returns, the shoots will freeze out completely. Also during the melting of snow beds with carrots can blur.
Sowing carrot seeds is carried out in October or November, when the frosty weather is stable. In the prepared beds sow the seeds of carrots to a depth of 5 cm, sprinkle with soil. Watering carrot crops is not necessary.Tip! If you mix all the carrot seeds from the sachets and sow this mixture, you can avoid empty places on the beds, if in some of the bags there are low-quality seeds.
It is undesirable to mix the seeds of carrot varieties with different periods of cultivation.
If during the thaw to cover the bed with a thick white film, you can avoid the awakening of carrot seeds. You can also throw on the bed and densely trample snow.
Spring sowing of carrot seeds can begin as early as April. When the snow is completely gone and the earth is thawed, you can sow carrots. On the prepared land mark the beds. For a single root, a distance of at least 5 cm is needed, in more thickened plantings, carrots develop very poorly, the fruits may be deformed, some root crops may grow together. The distance between the rows make at least 20 cm, between the beds - 40 or 50 cm.
When the ground temperature is above 4 degrees, the awakening of carrot seeds begins. In order to germinate, they will need 2-3 weeks. If you plant carrot seeds when the soil warms to 10-15 degrees, seedlings will appear faster.Important! In the spring you need to carefully monitor the moisture of the beds with carrots. Sunny windy weather very quickly dries the top layer of soil.
Seeds of carrots, which began the process of growth, require constant moisture, otherwise they die very quickly. It is possible to avoid overdrying of the soil, if the wet beds are covered with white agrofiber or newspapers.
The emerged carrot seedlings are not afraid of low temperatures, they can, without consequences, transfer frosts to -3 degrees. Covered with a layer of snow, shoots of carrots suffer a decrease in temperature to -5. If the thermometer drops below, the carrot seedlings will die.
Crop carrots are also highly dependent on the method of planting. Carrots can be planted in the following ways:
- In the ridges;
- On high beds.
The smooth way of sowing carrots is least suitable for the Leningrad region. The earth in this case warms up for a long time, the root system of the carrot is not protected from high humidity.
For the cultivation of carrots in this way, the excavated land is leveled, the rows and paths between them are laid out. Sown seeds covered with soil, carefully watered.
If you plant carrots in the ridge, it will not be subjected to waterlogging, because the excess water flows into the aisle. The earth in this case gets warm much faster, the root system of carrots begins active development earlier.Important! Formation of ridges for growing carrots is performed only with wet soil.
Ridges form manually or using special equipment. The height of the embankment should be at least 40 cm, the distance between the ridges makes 20-30 cm, it should be convenient to care for the ridges. Seeds of carrots sown on the surface of the ridge, it is most convenient to use two-line sowing.
It is very convenient to grow carrots in high beds. Sown on a properly prepared high bed, carrot seeds sprout quickly, have enough nutrients, the root system is protected from excessive moisture.
Preparation of high beds begin in the fall. The bottom layer should consist of a drainage material, at least 15 cm high. For drainage, you can use gravel, cobblestones, broken brick.
Important! Do not use old building materials for drainage of high beds; they may contain asbestos.
The second layer of high beds made from organic. You can use cleaning vegetables, tops, weeds, straw, chopped hay. To the decomposition process took place more intensively, organic matter can be treated with special substances that contain active bacteria.
The third layer of the beds consists of soil. It is desirable to make a soil mixture in which there will be all the substances necessary for the development of the root system of a carrot. To do this, a bucket of garden soil will need:
- Polvedra humus;
- 3-4 liters of sand;
- Liter of wood ash;
- The complex of trace elements.
All components must be thoroughly mixed and put on top of the organic layer. Finished trace elements should be added, following the instructions.
The high beds for growing carrots are made from any durable, non-toxic materials.
Seeds of carrots sown to a depth of 3 - 4 cm, covered with black film before germination.
Care for properly planted carrots is as follows:
- Protection against insects;
Weeding carrot beds must be done very carefully, carrot sprouts develop quite slowly, fast-growing weeds inhibit them. Thinning can be done during weeding. During this operation, remove excess seedlings, leaving between carrot sprouts 10-15 cm.
Watering carrots carried out if necessary, frequent watering carrots do not require. It is necessary to avoid abundant watering after a long drought, it contributes to the cracking of carrot fruits.Tip! If during weeding the beds with carrots to put weeds in between rows, this will help reduce the number of waterings.
Protection of carrot beds from insects should be carried out several times - in early spring, in early summer and during intensive growth of carrots. The greatest damage to landings is caused by a carrot fly and wireworm. It is necessary to choose the means of carrot protection with low toxicity.
Carrots react poorly to an excess of nitrogen in the soil. Fruits can begin branching, are more easily affected by fungal infections, become unsuitable for winter storage. It is best to apply organic fertilizer a year before sowing carrots.Tip! In an overcast summer, the accumulation of sugars by root crops slows down, the carrots turn out to be watery, savory. The situation can be corrected by applying magnesium fertilizers.
They contribute to the acceleration of photosynthesis, the formation of sugars, significantly improving the taste of carrots.
Observing all the rules of growing carrots, it is easy to achieve a good harvest, even in bad season.