One of the most dangerous diseases for tomatoes is phytophthora. The damage covers the aboveground parts of the plant: stalks, foliage, fruits. If you do not take timely action, you can lose the bushes themselves and the entire crop. Remedies for phytophtoras on tomatoes include special preparations and folk recipes.
Signs of phytophthora
Phytophthora is propagated by spores, which persist in the soil, on garden tools, plant residues, greenhouse surfaces.
Phytophthora initially manifests itself in the form of plaque on the lower parts of tomatoes, which are not easy to notice. However, the disease spreads rapidly, and in three days it causes significant damage to the crop.
Phytophtora is determined by the following features:
- spots appear on the back of the leaves;
- over time, the foliage becomes brown and falls;
- Tomato shoots darken and then turn black;
- black spots appear on the fruit.
Causes of phytophthora
For the development of phytophthora on tomatoes requires a certain environment. The spread of the disease begins when the following conditions exist:
- increased lime content;
- thick landings;
- high humidity in the greenhouse;
- temperature fluctuations causing dew loss;
- weakened immunity of tomatoes.
The best ways to fight
To get rid of phytophthora apply various methods. When the first signs of the disease appear, the affected areas are removed and burned. Tomatoes are treated with solutions that are prepared on the basis of copper sulfate or iodine. You can also purchase special anti-phytophoric drugs on tomatoes, which are available in the form of powder, tablets or liquids.
To get rid of phytophthora, special means have been developed that allow one to effectively deal with its pathogens.
The best drugs from phytophthora are:
- Fitosporin-M has a systemic effect and can be used at any stage of tomato development. Treatment is recommended on a cloudy day or at night.
- Antracol is a contact drug that does not have a toxic effect. Provides protection for up to 14 days.
- Kvadris - a means for spraying tomatoes grown in open or protected ground. For processing 2 procedures are enough with an interval of 10 days.
- Baikal EM - contains more than a billion microorganisms that help fight the blight. Suitable for watering and spraying.
- Trichodermin - an organic fungicide that protects the root system of tomatoes from fungal infections. An additional action is the improvement of the soil.
For the treatment of tomatoes affected by blight, Bordeaux liquid is used. It is made from quicklime and blue vitriol. Plants are processed during the growing season.
For spraying applied 1% solution. At first, copper sulphate in an amount of 0.1 kg is placed in 1 liter of water. To do this, take warm water, in which the crystals of a substance dissolve much faster. Then the volume of the solution is increased to 5 liters by adding water.
In another container, 0.1 kg of lime is poured over 5 liters of water. The solution of vitriol is carefully added to the milk of lime.Important! During the preparation of the liquid and the further spraying, protective equipment is used for the hands, eyes and respiratory organs.
When spraying, the liquid should cover the leaves of the tomato. Means is sprayed through a spray.
Copper sulphate solution is an effective remedy for phytophthora prevention. Before planting, the soil is processed. To do this, prepare a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
After the final transplant, the soil is treated with copper sulphate of 1% concentration. Tomato leaves are sprayed with a similar solution.Tip! If signs of phytophtora are observed, then a 5% solution of copper sulfate is taken for tillage.
When using copper sulfate it is necessary to observe the indicated concentrations. Otherwise, the tomatoes will burn leaves or root system.
Iodine is a universal means of combating many fungal diseases of tomatoes. This element is involved in biological processes and improves nitrogen metabolism in plants.
Tomato seeds are treated with iodine prior to planting to eliminate malicious spores. Before planting, it is recommended to water the soil with the addition of this element. When the first symptoms of phytophthora appear, the tomatoes are sprayed with a solution based on iodine.Tip! To prepare the solution, 20 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water are used.
For prophylaxis, iodine-based treatment can be carried out every 10 days. Thus, the immunity of tomatoes increases and the process of fruit set improves.
Popular methods involve the use of available tools to get rid of phytophthora. This treatment is good because all components are completely safe. The solutions themselves are easy to use and can be combined with other products from phytophthora.
Prokisshem milk contains beneficial bacteria that can resist phytophthora disputes. Processing is performed by spraying the leaves of tomatoes.Important! Whey diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
Pure water at room temperature is taken for spraying. After hitting the leaves, the serum creates a protective film on their surface. This is an obstacle to harmful microorganisms from penetrating the stems, leaves and fruits of tomatoes.
The resulting solution can be processed tomatoes from the beginning of July. You can perform the procedure daily.
Ash is a universal fertilizer for tomatoes, because it contains phosphorus, potassium and calcium. The fertilization of plants with ash has a positive effect on the fruiting and yield of tomatoes.
An additional effect from the use of ash is protection against phytophthora. The products of combustion of wood and plant residues are introduced into the soil before planting tomatoes. Then ash treated tomato seedlings, transferred to a permanent place. The following procedures are performed before flowering and the appearance of the first ovaries.Important! The solution includes 10 liters of water and half a bucket of ash.
The resulting mixture should be infused for three days. Then the precipitate is drained, another 20 liters of water are added and used for watering or spraying. To keep the solution on the leaves longer, add 30 g of soap to it.
Among the natural remedies for phytophtora garlic stands out. Its composition includes phytoncides that can withstand the disputes of phytophthora and other diseases.
To prepare the solution is taken 100 g of garlic (leaves, heads, arrows), which are crushed and filled with a glass of water. For a day, the agent will infuse, after which you need to strain it.Tip! The solution is diluted in 10 l of water, then add 1 g of potassium permanganate.
Processing is carried out by spraying the bush, including the ovary and the ground. The liquid should not fall on the inflorescences. For prevention, you can use garlic spraying up to 2 times per season.
Salt has disinfectant properties and is able to fight against fungal diseases of tomatoes.Tip! The tool is prepared by dissolving 1 cup of salt in 10 liters of water.
Processing is performed by spraying green fruits and leaves. For the prevention procedure is carried out monthly.
To prepare the solution requires 1 kg of rotten straw, which is poured 10 liters of water. Additionally, you can add a handful of urea. The tool must be infused for 3 days, after which you can carry out spraying.
Another method is the use of nettle or wormwood. 1 kg of fresh chopped grass is poured with water (10 l) and left for a day. After straining it turns out the ready means for spraying.
Instead of grass, you can use pine or spruce needles. Then 0.5 liters of water is required per liter jar of needles, after which the product is boiled for 5 minutes. The finished solution is obtained by diluting the broth with water in a ratio of 1: 5.
Yeast bacteria are able to suppress phytophtora in the early stages of its development. To do this, prepare a special solution for irrigation.Important! 10 g of water requires 100 g of yeast.
First, the yeast is poured with a small amount of warm water and left in a warm place. A few days later, the resulting remedy for phytophthora on tomatoes is diluted with water and used for top dressing.
Watering is done between the rows with tomatoes. An additional effect of this treatment will be an improvement in the composition of the soil, the appearance of new shoots and ovaries in tomatoes.
Ordinary copper wire can be an effective protection against phytophtora. To do this, it is ignited on fire and cleaned with sandpaper.
Then the wire is cut into pieces up to 5 cm long. Each piece is placed in the stem of tomatoes at a height of 10 cm from the ground. The ends of the wire are bent down.Tip! Do not wind the wire around the stem of the tomato.
Wire can be placed in the root system of tomatoes before planting. Due to copper, oxidation processes are accelerated, which has a positive effect on oxygen metabolism and the production of chlorophyll by tomatoes. As a result, increased plant immunity and resistance to phytophthora.
Phytophthora can be avoided by the following activities:
- restore the natural balance of the soil by adding peat or sand;
- change places for planting;
- planted tomatoes after beets, zucchini, greens, corn, cucumbers, onions;
- adhere to the landing scheme;
- water the plants in the morning so that the moisture is absorbed into the ground;
- regularly air the greenhouse;
- in cloudy weather, do not irrigate, and loosen the top layer of soil;
- to feed based on potassium and phosphorus;
- choose varieties resistant to diseases.
Additionally, processing of greenhouses and greenhouses is carried out: pollution and residues of plants are removed. Fumigation of greenhouses helps to get rid of malicious disputes. To do this, put a piece of wool in a bucket with glowing charcoal. After fumigation, leave the greenhouse for a day closed.
Phytophthora has characteristic manifestations and is capable of causing irreparable harm to tomatoes. To protect the tomatoes used chemicals and traditional methods. All of them are aimed at the destruction of pathogens of the disease. Tomatoes are additionally processed for prophylaxis. To prevent the development of phytophthora helps compliance with the rules of planting, the creation of conditions with low humidity, regular feeding of tomatoes. To achieve the best result, you can use several tools from phytophthora.