Phosphorus is very important for tomatoes. This valuable element plays a major role in plant nutrition. It stimulates metabolic processes, so that the seedlings of tomatoes can continue to fully develop. Tomatoes, which receive a sufficient amount of phosphorus, have a healthy root system, grow quickly, form large fruits, and also form good seeds. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out how to properly use phosphate fertilizers for tomatoes.
How to determine the lack of phosphorus
The peculiarity of phosphorus is that the excess of this substance in the soil is simply impossible. In any case, even if it is more than necessary, the plant will not suffer from it. And an insufficient amount of phosphorus can be very bad for tomatoes. Without phosphorus, no metabolic processes will simply occur.
Among the signs of phosphorus deficiency are the following:
- leaves change color to purple;
- the outlines of the leaves change, and then they fall off altogether;
- dark spots appear on lower leaves;
- growth of tomatoes is delayed;
- poorly developed root system.
How to apply phosphate fertilizers
In order not to be mistaken when applying phosphate fertilizers, it is necessary to follow these rules:
- granular fertilizers need to be made just under the root of the plant. The fact is that it is simply not worth sprinkling fertilizer over the surface of the soil. Phosphorus does not have the ability to dissolve in the upper layers of the soil. You can also make fertilizer in the form of liquid solutions or when digging the soil;
- It is best to dig up beds with phosphorus in the fall. Thus, it is possible to achieve the best results, because during the winter the fertilizer will be able to fully digest;
- no need to expect results right away. Phosphate fertilizers can accumulate for 3 years, and only then give good fruit;
- if the soil in the garden is acidic, it is necessary to conduct liming a month before the use of phosphate fertilizers. To do this, sprinkle the soil with dry lime or wood ash.
Phosphoric fertilizers for tomatoes
Gardeners for many years use phosphate fertilizers. Practice shows that the following substances have shown themselves best:
- Superphosphate. This fertilizer must be made in the hole when planting ready seedlings. For 1 tomato bush will need about 15-20 grams of superphosphate. It is also effective to make a solution of this substance. To do this, in a large capacity combine five liters of water and 50 grams of the drug. Tomatoes are watered at a rate of half a liter of the mixture per bush.
- Ammophos. This preparation contains large amounts of phosphorus (52%) and nitrogen (12%). You can make a substance once during the transplanting of a seedling or use a preparation for preparing a solution for irrigation. The best period for making diammophos is the time when tomatoes begin to bloom.
- Potassium monophosphate. The amount of phosphorus in this fertilizer is about 23%. It also contains 28% potassium. For the entire growing season, fertilization with this fertilizer is carried out only 2 times. Suitable for root and foliar dressings.
- Nitrophoska. Such a preparation contains equal amounts of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Such a balanced diet has a very positive effect on tomato seedlings. A solution of nitrophoska prepared from 10 liters of water and 10 teaspoons of the drug. Tomatoes are watered with this mixture one week after transplanting.
- Bone meal or bone meal. It contains about 19% phosphorus. During planting seedlings should be made two spoons of the drug in the hole.
Important! Unfortunately, in organic matter phosphorus is less common. Gardeners use for this purpose compost from wormwood.
Superphosphate for feeding tomatoes
One of the most popular phosphate fertilizers is, of course, superphosphate. He is loved and often used in their plots by many gardeners. It is suitable for fertilizing not only tomatoes, but also other crops. The drug can be stored for a long time without losing its beneficial properties. Plants are not afraid of an overdose of phosphorus, as they absorb it only in the amount that they need. With experience, every gardener can determine how much fertilizer should be applied to the soil in order to get a good harvest.
Among the advantages of this fertilizer, it is possible to highlight the fact that tomatoes begin to grow faster, bear fruit longer, and the taste qualities of fruits become even better. Lack of phosphorus, on the contrary, significantly slows down the growth of seedlings, because of what the fruits are not so large and of high quality.
The need of plants for phosphorus can be seen by the following features:
- leaves become darker, gain a light blue tint;
- rusty spots can be seen all over the plant;
- the lower part of the leaves becomes purple.
Such manifestations may occur after hardening seedlings or a sharp jump in temperature. It happens that during a cooling spell, the leaves may temporarily change their color, but as soon as it gets warmer, everything will fall into place again. If the plant does not change, it is necessary to feed the bushes with superphosphate.
This complex can be applied directly to the soil during soil preparation in spring and autumn. But, it will not be superfluous to add the drug to the well when planting seedlings. For 1 bush tomato need 1 teaspoon of the substance.
What soils need phosphorus
Phosphorus is a harmless substance. Therefore, it can be used on any type of soil. It can accumulate in the soil, and then be used by plants on demand. It is noticed that it is most effective to use superphosphate in soils with alkaline or neutral reaction. It is much more difficult to use the drug in acidic soil. This soil prevents the absorption of phosphorus by plants. In such cases, as mentioned above, the soil will need to be treated with lime or wood ash. Without this procedure, the plants practically do not receive the required amount of phosphorus.Important! Choose only high-quality proven drugs. Cheap fertilizers in acidic soils can lead to the most unpredictable results.
Poor quality materials may not harm the plants in fertile soil at all. But, with a high level of acidity, phosphorus can turn into iron phosphate. In this case, the plants will not receive the necessary trace element, and therefore will not be able to fully grow.
Use of superphosphate
Using superphosphate to fertilize the soil is very simple. It is usually applied to the soil immediately after harvesting or in the spring before planting vegetables. For a square meter of soil will need from 40 to 70 grams of superphosphate, depending on the fertility of the soil. For exhausted soil, this amount should be increased by about a third. It should be borne in mind that the soil in the greenhouse is more in need of mineral fertilizers. In this case, use about 90 grams of fertilizer per square meter.
In addition, superphosphate is used to fertilize the soil where fruit trees are grown. It is brought directly into the hole when planting, and also conduct regular watering with a solution of the drug. Planting tomatoes and other crops is carried out in the same way. Being in the hole, the drug can directly affect the plant.Attention! Superphosphate can not be used simultaneously with other nitrogen-containing fertilizers. It is also incompatible with lime. Therefore, after liming the soil, it is possible to add superphosphate only in a month.
Types of superphosphates
In addition to the usual superphosphate, there are others that may contain different amounts of minerals or differ in appearance and method of use. Among them are the following superphosphates:
- monophosphate. It is a gray friable powder, which contains about 20% of phosphorus. Subject to storage conditions, the substance does not cake. Granulated superphosphate is made from it. This is a very cheap tool, so it is in great demand. However, monophosphate is less effective than more modern drugs.
- granular superphosphate. As the name implies, this is the usual superphosphate in granular form. It has good flowability. It is much more convenient to use and store.
- ammoniated. This preparation consists not only of phosphorus, but also of sulfur in the amount of 12% and potassium (about 45%). The substance is highly soluble in liquids. Suitable for spraying bushes.
- double superphosphate. Phosphorus in this preparation is about 50%, potassium is also present. Dissolving substance is not very good. Inexpensive, but very effective fertilizer. Influences growth and fruit formation.
Superphosphate itself is poorly soluble in liquids. But, experienced gardeners have found a way out of this situation. From this fertilizer you can make an excellent nutritional extract. For this superphosphate pour boiling water and leave for a day in a warm place. This cooking option allows you to save all the useful properties. The mixture should be stirred regularly to speed up the process of dissolving the substance. Ready feeding should be similar to full-fat milk.
Then proceed to the preparation of the working solution. To do this, mix 10 tablespoons of the mixture with 1.5 liters of water. From such solution fertilizer for tomatoes will be prepared. To prepare the nutrient mixture in the same container are mixed:
- 20 liters of water;
- 0.3 l of a solution prepared from superphosphate;
- 40 grams of nitrogen;
- 1 liter of wood ash.
The most important component in this solution is nitrogen. It is he who is responsible for the absorption of phosphorus by plants. Now, the resulting fertilizer can be used for watering tomatoes.
Using superphosphate for tomato
Superphosphate is used not only for fertilizing vegetable crops, but also for various fruit and berry trees and grain plants. But still, the most effective fertilizer is for crops such as tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants. The use of superphosphate for seedlings of tomatoes allows you to get strong bushes with more fleshy fruits.Important! The normal amount of superphosphate for 1 bush is 20 grams.
To feed tomatoes, dry or granular superphosphate is used. The substance must be distributed over the top layer of soil. You should not bury superphosphate too deeply, because this substance is poorly soluble in water, which is why it may not be completely absorbed by plants. Superphosphate should be in the hole at the level of the root system of tomatoes. It is used top dressing throughout the growing season, and not just when planting seedlings. The fact is that about 85% of phosphorus from fertilizer goes to the formation and ripening of tomatoes. Therefore, superphosphate is necessary for tomatoes throughout the growth of bushes.
Also consider the amount of potassium in the fertilizer when choosing superphosphate. It should be as much as possible. This element, like phosphorus, allows to increase the yield and quality of fruits. These tomatoes have the best taste. The important point is that young seedlings absorb phosphorus much worse, while adult bushes of tomatoes absorb it almost completely. And tomato seedlings may not benefit at all from phosphate fertilizers. In this case, top dressing is carried out not with dry superphosphate, but with its extract, the preparation of which is described above.
The importance of superphosphate for tomato seedlings cannot be overestimated. This is undoubtedly the best fertilizer for tomatoes. Not only phosphorus itself makes this substance so popular, but also the presence of other mineral substances in it. The most important among them are magnesium, nitrogen and potassium. Some types of superphosphate contain sulfur, which also plays an important role in the development of tomato seedlings. Superphosphate allows you to increase the resistance of bushes to temperature jumps, as well as a positive effect on the formation of fruits and strengthening the root system.
As you can see, phosphate dressings are very important for growing tomatoes. To satisfy the need for seedlings in phosphorus folk remedies is almost impossible. Therefore, most gardeners use complex phosphorus-based tomato fertilizers. This dressing gives tomatoes the strength to fight disease and weather changes. Phosphorus is also responsible for the formation of fruits and the growth of roots. All this together makes the plant stronger and healthier. The article listed some preparations for phosphorus-based fertilizing of tomatoes. The most popular substance today is superphosphate. It fully satisfies the need of tomatoes in phosphorus.