Disorders in the development of tomatoes cause various external changes. One of the most pressing issues in the cultivation of this crop is why the tomato leaves are twisted in a boat. The reason may be a violation of the rules of watering and pasynkovaniya, the spread of diseases and pests.
Causes of leaf curling
Tomatoes need abundant watering. Violation of the mode of moisture has a negative impact on the development of plants.
Immediately after planting in a permanent place, the tomatoes are well watered. The following procedure is carried out in 10 days. It is enough to water the plants 1-2 times a week, depending on the climatic conditions.Important! The intensity of watering increases during the formation of ovaries and fruiting tomatoes.
In case of insufficient watering, the leaves curl inward to keep moisture from evaporation. In this case, you need to water the planting in small portions, but often enough.
Overflow also leads to deformation of the leaves of plants. With an excess of moisture, the leaves are curled up with the edges. Tomatoes are able to tolerate short-term drought. If this period is delayed, then the leaves begin to curl.Tip! For watering, select the morning or evening period.
It is not allowed to make watering under direct sunshine. Moisture should not fall on the green mass of plants.
Water the tomatoes need warm water. For this, containers with liquid are placed in the sun or heated water is added immediately before the procedure.
Another factor that leads to the twisting of tomato leaves, is a violation of the temperature regime.
The optimum temperature for tomatoes is + 20-22 ° C in the daytime. At night, the ambient temperature should be in the range of +16 to + 18 ° C.
If the temperature rises to + 30 ° C, the flowering of tomatoes stops and the ovary falls. If the air warms up to + 40 ° C, then the plants die.
In hot weather, leaf twisting is observed on plantings not only in the greenhouse, but also in the open field. At elevated temperatures, the decomposition of microelements necessary for the development of tomatoes is accelerated. As a result, the plant does not assimilate them, which leads to starvation.Tip! Lowering the temperature will help airing the greenhouse.
Tomatoes tolerate drafts well, so when grown in greenhouses, windows and window vents are required. If there is no possibility of airing, then the greenhouse can be hung with a cloth to create shadow areas or whitewash the walls with lime.Important! An effective way to reduce the temperature is mulching. Light materials (straw, hay, non-woven fabric) reflect sunlight and prevent overheating of plant roots.
Additionally, you can spray the tomatoes with a solution of urea. On a bucket of water is enough 1.5 st. l this substance. After three days, the plants are treated with potassium permanganate solution.
Excess or lack of fertilizer
Fertilization is a prerequisite for a good harvest. Excess nutrients adversely affect the development of plants.
Most often, tomatoes overfeed with nitrogenous substances that are contained in organic fertilizers (manure, bird droppings). As a result, the green mass of plants grows intensively, the ovary is not formed, potassium and phosphorus are worse assimilated.Important! Excess nitrogen can be compensated by top-dressing on the basis of potassium monophosphate or copper sulfate.
In plants, the leaves are twisted with an excess of the following elements:
- zinc (the edges of the leaf plate are bent, and the lower part of the bush acquires a purple hue);
- manganese (tops wrinkled and becomes a bright green tint).
The change in the status of the leaves of tomatoes is indicated by a lack of fertilizers. If the foliage rolls up, the plants need more calcium. With a shortage of this element, the development of tomatoes slows down, and apical rot appears on the fruit.
Calcium deficiency is compensated by adding calcium nitrate to plants. Consumption of substances is 20 g per bucket of water. 0.1 kg of ash and 10 g of urea can be added to the solution.
When phosphorus starvation foliage twists and gets a grayish tint. To remedy the situation, a solution is prepared containing 0.1 kg of superphosphate per bucket of water.
Pasony is the removal of lateral shoots, which eventually grow leaves and fruits. If you leave the stepchildren, the tomatoes begin to branch. As a result, planting becomes too thick, and the plant directs its strength to the formation of foliage.
As a result of the wrong staining, too small fruits are formed. In the absence of this procedure, the leaves curl in tomatoes. Therefore, the timely removal of excess shoots can reduce the load on the plants.
Tip! The butchers are removed after they grow 5 cm.
Elimination of small shoots does not harm plants. If you remove the full leaves, the yield of tomatoes is lost. The procedure is carried out no more than twice a week in sunny weather. If the day is overcast, then cut through the wood ash.
Too dense plantings often lack nutrients or moisture. As a result, the leaves of the tomato, which did not receive nutrition in the required amount, begin to curl.
Twisting the leaves of tomatoes is observed with the spread of disease. A favorable environment for the development of diseases are thick plantings, excessive moisture, violation of the rules of crop rotation and fertilization. When the first signs of disease appear, appropriate measures are taken.
The disease affects plants growing in the open field. As a result, the presentation of the fruit is lost. In tomatoes, affected by stolbur, leaves are deformed. The upper shoots take on a purple or pinkish shade, while the lower leaves turn yellow.Important! Stolbur develops during a period of drought and hot weather.
Disease vectors are circadian disease, so the main control measures aimed at their destruction. Next to planting, the spread of weeds, which become a refuge for insects, must be excluded.
Planting sunflower or corn will help protect the tomatoes from the spread of tsikadok. For the prevention of the disease, the plants are sprayed with Aktara, Confidor, Fufanon.
An effective remedy for stolbur is "phytoplasmin." This is the only effective drug aimed at combating the disease. On its basis a solution is prepared for watering or spraying tomatoes.
If the leaves of the tomatoes fade and curl upwards, it can be a symptom of bacterial cancer. On the young shoots appear brown and red ulcers. The wilting of tomatoes occurs from the bottom. First, the lesion covers the leaves of plants that become brown and dry out.
If you do not take the necessary measures, the disease will move to the fruits. Its signs are small flat spots, concentrated near the stem. Over time, the stains turn yellow and turn into cracks.Important! Bacterial cancer spreads through seeds, soil, plant residues.
The development of the disease provokes increased humidity and injuries in plants. Therefore, in the greenhouse with tomatoes, airing is necessarily carried out, the soil is disinfected before planting, the rules of crop rotation are observed.
Before planting the roots of tomatoes in the ground immersed solution "Fitolavin" for 2 hours. If the disease has already manifested itself, the plants are sprayed with Planriz. Copper sulfate, copper oxychloride, Bordeaux liquid is used against bacterial cancer.
Pests cause serious damage to plants because they feed on their juices. As a result, tomatoes go into depression, which negatively affects their appearance and yield. If the leaves are curled in tomatoes, this indicates the spread of whitefly, aphids or spider mites.
The whitefly is a white butterfly that lives on the lower leaves of the tomato. Its effect leads to drying of the leaves, on the surface of which a black patina appears.
Prior to planting tomatoes fumigate a greenhouse with candles from sulfur. The procedure is performed twice a year in spring and autumn, when plants are not planted.
When a whitefly is detected, the following methods are used:
- treatment with chemicals "Fufanon" and "Mospilan";
- additional use of infusion of yarrow and soap solution for leaf processing plants.
To get rid of insects will only help multiple processing. The use of chemicals stops 3 weeks before harvest.
Works should be carried out in cloudy weather in the absence of rain and wind. To prevent the use of folk remedies: infusion of garlic or dandelions.
The impact of aphids on tomatoes is expressed in the twisting of the foliage and the appearance of visible damage on it.
To get rid of aphids on plants help chemicals "Aktara", "Iskra", "Proteus". During processing, you must comply with safety measures and protect the skin, eyes and respiratory organs with special means.Important! The procedure is carried out three times with an interval of 10 days.
In addition to chemicals, folk methods are applied. A decoction based on odorous plants (wormwood or celandine) repels insects.
The tool is used by spraying tomatoes. If you add laundry soap to the solution, the liquid will remain on the sheet plate longer.
To remove aphids used ash solution. For its preparation requires a bucket of water and a glass of wood ash. Means insist two days, after which produce a sprinkling of tomatoes.
Another reason why leaves curl around tomatoes is the spread of spider mites. This pest appears in the greenhouse, where tomatoes grow. It can be identified by twisted and dried leaves of plants, discoloration of the leaves, the appearance of cobwebs.
Get rid of the pest help chemicals that are treated greenhouse, soil and plants. For tomatoes, the drugs Borneo, Flumate, Oberon are used.
Tip! The last use of chemicals should take place 3 weeks before the fruit is picked.
Biological method of struggle is planting phytophages that destroy spider mites. This method is safe for tomatoes and humans and allows you to get rid of the pest in a short time.
To prevent the spread of spider mites, disinfection of the greenhouse, plants and soil is performed. A popular method of pest control is the use of infusion henbane, dandelions, onions or garlic.
If tomatoes have leaves curled, then you need to pay attention to the conditions in which the plants are located. If necessary, increases or decreases the intensity of irrigation, staging is performed. At detection of diseases or pests, measures are taken to get rid of them.