There are various diseases of potato tubers, most of which even an experienced gardener cannot identify at the initial stage. From this disease begins to spread to other healthy bushes, destroying the entire crop. For the treatment of most diseases of potatoes invented a lot of drugs. However, in order for them to function effectively, it is necessary to determine exactly what the culture should be treated from. In this article we have collected the most common diseases of potatoes, and each of them is accompanied by instructions for dealing with the disease.
What is the cause of the disease of potato
Most gardeners believe that pests and weather conditions are to blame for potato tuber diseases. In part, they are right. However, there is another side to the problem that a person rarely admits - it is the fault of the vegetable grower himself.
There are three main causes of potato disease, in the occurrence of which it is not the pests that are to blame, but the person himself:
- wrong selection of tubers for planting;
- violation of crop rotation technology;
- improper care of planting potatoes.
Now let's take a quick look at each of the problems. What is the wrong selection of planting tubers? It is clear that the affected potatoes on the landing can not be left. But still need to choose the right varieties. Now for sale a lot of breeding potatoes. That is, hybrids. They are immune to most diseases. There are even potatoes whose leaves are not eaten by pests, for example, the Colorado potato beetle. But each hybrid is bred for certain growing conditions. If you plant tubers that are not intended for the climatic conditions of the region or the soil does not suit them, the immunity endowed with breeders disappears and the potato starts to hurt.
When growing potatoes, it is imperative to observe crop rotation. Here the pests will play their bad role. They remain in the ground after harvesting, hibernate, and awaken in the spring, and begin to amaze young tubers. Some of them are able to destroy potatoes at the stage of ripening.
Often the plantings of potatoes ruin the wrong care. We missed with watering - the culture was exhausted in the heat, overdone with irrigation - went phytophthora. More care involves the timely weeding, loosening the soil, etching the Colorado potato beetle and other activities.
What are the symptoms to determine that the potato is sick
The initial stage of cultural diseases is difficult to determine even for an experienced gardener. But if you carefully monitor the condition of the plant, then you can identify the disease even when the potatoes can be saved. Suppose late blight manifests itself not only in tubers, but also affects the aboveground part of the plant. If the leaves and stems began to turn black, measures must be taken immediately.
Potato contamination can be recognized by the appearance of aphids. These pests are carriers of disease. This problem can be avoided with the timely weeding of weeds, and the treatment of plantations with special preparations.
The main symptom of potato tuber disease is the condition of its tops. The culture struck by any disease begins to lag behind in growth, the color and shape of the leaves changes, the plant begins to fade. At this stage, it is necessary to dig one such bush, and try on the tubers to determine the cause of the disease in order to choose the right drug for treatment.Attention! The diseases themselves do not pass. If any suspicious symptoms occur, measures should be taken immediately, otherwise you can be left without a crop.
Main types of potato disease
The photo shows a table with examples of common ailments of potatoes. But there are a lot of diseases, so they are conditionally divided into three types:
- All types of bacterial diseases are transmitted through planting material, that is, tubers. Moreover, pathogens comfortably winter in the ground. If even healthy tubers are planted in an infected garden, they will still be amazed. Putrefactive bacteria do not die in the heat and even in winter with severe frosts.
- Viral diseases include all mosaic varieties. Ailment changes the color and shape of the aerial parts of the plant. The culture may not even die, but the tubers will start very little.
- The fungus damages any part of the culture. The most common ailment in this series is late blight. It spreads quickly across all plantations. If time does not take action, all potatoes may disappear. The potato fungus is doubly dangerous. In addition, he himself affects the culture, additionally kills its immunity resistance to other diseases.
For any kind of disease there are individual control measures. Now we will look at the photo description and treatment of potato tuber diseases, and we hope that our information will help many gardeners to save their crops.
The video tells about the potato ailments, and methods of dealing with common diseases:
The manifestation of bacterial diseases on tubers, and methods of combating them
In bacterial disease, potato tubers are affected in the soil, and pathogens are spread along with poor planting material. The harvest begins to rot, and becomes completely unfit for human consumption.
Ring Rot of Tuber
This type of rot most often destroys tubers. The disease begins to manifest itself on the leaf. Leaves first wither, after which the stems fall to the ground. If you cut an infected tuber, the rot can be seen along its circumference. Hence the name of the disease. The causative agent of rot lives on a mowed leaf for a long time, so it is better to burn it immediately.Attention! If time does not take control measures, it can die up to 45% of the crop.
There is one secret how to accurately establish the diagnosis. To do this, from the withering bush break off one stem, and put it in a glass of water. After a while, mucus starts to stand out from it. You can dig up the tubers. When cutting is not even rotten, but the affected potato on the cut can be seen yellow formation in the form of a soft ring.
It is necessary to fight rot even at the stage of preparation of planting material. It is undesirable to cut large potatoes into several pieces. If the tubers are very large, they are cut with a disinfected knife, and the cut is treated with wood ash. Bought for divorce potatoes are thoroughly washed, then dried at a temperature of 17aboutWith a minimum of 10 days.
To prevent the occurrence of rot in the garden can be mowing tops shortly before the harvest. If the disease has already struck the culture, the bush should be immediately dug, after which it is desirable to burn it.
Brown rot of tubers
This kind of rot only destroys tubers. However, the symptom can be identified by a fading aboveground part. The affected bush lags far behind in growth, and the stems begin to fade.Important! Identify the disease in advance is very difficult, almost impossible. Symptoms of rot begin to appear clearly in the second year.
Affected potatoes can be seen in the garden during its flowering. Stems become sluggish, causing the bush begins to wilt and fall apart. The leaves turn yellow, frown, and eventually dry out. There are no methods to combat the disease. There are only measures to prevent the occurrence of the disease. Just need to buy high-quality planting material, as well as observe crop rotation. In general, it is better to start varieties resistant to brown rot.
Tuber Mixed Inner Rot
This disease occurs on mechanically damaged potatoes. As long as the tubers are in the ground untouched, you can not worry about this disease. When digging a crop or careless transportation, many potatoes are subjected to mechanical damage through which putrefactive bacteria penetrate. Tubers begin to slowly rot from the inside during storage in the cellar.
The method of dealing with internal rot can only be a careful sorting of potatoes, before laying the crop for winter storage. Cellar and bins annually need to handle a solution of copper sulphate.
Wet Rot of Tuber
The causative agent of wet rot penetrates the potato tissue through the same mechanical damage. Tissue damage occurs during harvest, but the result is not immediately visible. Rotting potatoes begins in the cellar. Moreover, the disease spreads to other nearby tubers, even if they are not mechanically damaged.
Wet rot can be recognized by feeling the tubers. Potatoes become unnaturally soft. When you press your fingers from the peel stands out bright starchy mucus. The process is accompanied by an unpleasant smell.
You can avoid the manifestation of the disease if you store the harvest in a disinfected basement with good ventilation and dry air. Edible potatoes before going to the cellar are sorted, discarding the damaged tubers. Planting material before storage is treated with disinfectants.
This disease often suffers potatoes planted in the place where cabbage grew last year. In the affected culture, the stems near the ground begin to turn black and gradually turn into rot. Tubers begin to become covered with a wet bloom, after which they also disappear.Attention! The massive manifestation of the disease threatens to lose 70% of the crop. Even if the affected tubers are not lost, they will not be stored in winter.
The first manifestation of the black stem can be determined by the yellowing and lethargy of the leaves on the lower part of the plant. One has only to take up a thin stalk, it is easy to pull out of the ground. The potato tissue itself acquires a soft structure that emits an unpleasant odor.
To prevent the manifestation of this disease is possible by careful selection of planting potatoes, plus the observance of crop rotation. In the autumn from the garden it is necessary to remove all the dry vegetation.
The manifestation of viral diseases, and methods of dealing with them
There are several types of mosaics. Any manifestation of it on potatoes is defined as a viral disease.
Mottled or ordinary mosaic
The disease manifests itself as yellow spots on the leaves of new potatoes. However, exactly the same signs are observed on the plant with a lack of iron in the soil. For a more accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to monitor diseased bushes. If the yellow spots gradually become brownish, this plant is 100% infected. Potato bush can only be completely removed, and it should be immediately thrown into the fire. All neighboring unaffected plants are treated with antiviral drugs.
This disease has several strains. Depending on the pathogen and the symptoms will be different. Although there are common features that allow to identify the virus. First, the fragility of the plant increases. The stem breaks with a slight hand pressure. Secondly, stripes and points of different colors appear throughout the plant. The back of the leaves acquires brown areas.
The virus spreads instantly, leaving no chance of survival for the neighboring potato bushes. The affected plant should only be removed from the garden, and burned in the fire.
By the name of this virus, it is already possible to determine that the potato leaves begin to shrink. In some areas, yellow spots appear. The result of the epidemic is a big crop loss.
The wrinkled mosaic virus progresses only in hot, dry summers. This does not happen every year, and only under favorable weather conditions for the pathogen.
This type of virus is also called leaf curl. Immediately identify the infected potatoes can not. Symptoms are observed in the second and third year of cultivation of the same variety. Every year, the potato bushes become shorter. In the third year, the leaves of diseased plants curl into a tube from the edges to the central core. Over time, they become bronze and become brittle. If you hold your hand on such foliage, it will partly begin to crumble, making a rustling sound. Simultaneously with the aerial part, the root system is affected. This leads to the formation of a shallow ovary of tubers or none at all.
Since it is almost impossible to identify the virus at an early stage at home, it is better to start another potato variety from healthy planting material next year.
The manifestation of fungal diseases, and methods of dealing with them
The fungus quickly infects the tubers and the above-ground part of the potato, penetrates the adjacent plants through mechanical damage, and instantly spreads to all plantations. Save the harvest can only timely detection of the disease and the rapid adoption of appropriate measures.
In the potato field late blight spreads instantly. If you show inaction in the fight against this fungus, for a couple of weeks, all healthy bushes will disappear. The first sign of the appearance of the fungus is brown specks on potato leaves, gradually overgrowing the edges with white bloom. The disease passes from the leaves to the stems and tubers. Its further manifestation depends on the weather. If it's hot outside, then the above-ground part of the potato just dries out. Raw rainy summer, affected by blight, tops, just rot.
Phytophthora peddler is water. It does not matter whether it will rain or artificial irrigation, but along with drops of water spores of the fungus spread, which settle on the stems of healthy plants.
There are several preventive measures to help prevent late blight. First, the planting material must be sprouted and processed before planting. After sprouting, the grown potato bushes are tucking with high mounds. Secondly, you can not grow potatoes every year in the same place. In addition, tomatoes are not the best neighbor in the garden.
For the prevention of phytophthora use of copper sulfate. When the potato bushes grow to a height of 20 cm, they are sprayed with a solution prepared from 10 liters of water and 10 g of blue powder. If the disease has already been seen on plants, then a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture is used to treat potato plantations. On one weave a vegetable garden spend 4 liters of solution. Spraying is carried out 4 times with an interval of one week between each procedure.
The video tells about the protection against late blight:
The spores of this fungus persist for a long time on mowed potato tops and other vegetation. Ailment most often affects potato varieties, bringing tubers with a red thin skin. On the surface of the potato corky cracks appear. Such damage to the shell opens the way for penetration into the flesh of other pathogens causing rot. In practice, it was found that the disease most often develops in areas with sandy or limestone soil.
Prevent ordinary scab preventive measures. Planting material germinated before planting in the light, so that the skin of the tubers acquired a greenish tint, but even before this, formalin treatment is carried out. Good results are obtained by planting siderats and crop rotation. It is better to plant varieties resistant to scab. If you still want to grow your favorite sort of red potatoes, then for planting it is necessary to choose a plot with slightly acidic soil, and plant the tubers shallowly.
The manifestation of the disease on potato tubers can be recognized by brown spots with a silvery edge. During storage in the wet cellar, the skin of the affected potatoes partially exfoliates.
The peak of the development of silver scab is the period of tuber ovary in hot weather. And most often this occurs in areas with sandy or loamy soils. In the autumn, during the selection of planting material, it is necessary to ensure that the affected tubers do not land.
To combat the disease using drugs Fundazol or Botran, which process tubers before planting. After harvesting the potatoes are dried for about three days, and only then lowered into the cellar. The storage is treated annually with prophylactic solutions.
The disease affects the bottom of the potato stalks, the root system and the tubers themselves. The disease progresses in rainy summer, and can be determined by the white formations on the stems of plants. For confidence, you need to dig one infected shrub. The roots of such potatoes, too, will be with white outgrowth. Over time, white formations turn into dark cracking specks. Spores of powdery scab retain their vital functions in the soil, tubers and even manure.Important! If infected potatoes get into the cellar for storage with healthy tubers, then during the winter it will rotten a lot of harvest.
Measures to combat the disease are almost the same as with any other type of scab. The main thing is not to throw the affected potato tubers for rotting into compost heaps. The fungus in manure does not die, and when you make the feeding again spreads around the garden.
This disease has a limited area of spread, but it is very dangerous because the pathogen remains in the ground for a long time. Most often the disease occurs in private small gardens, where potatoes are grown for years in the same place. Причем поражаются сорта картофеля восприимчивые к раку.
The first signs of disease are the appearance of growths on the lower part of the plant. The object of the damage are the leaves, stalks and tubers of potatoes. Over time, the growths begin to darken, and, reaching the black color, they open up during rotting. Of the cancers in the ground gets a lot of ripe spores, where they continue their livelihoods.
In the land of controversy persist for more than twenty years. Together with the primer they stick to healthy tubers, spread around the neighboring areas with melt water, feet of domestic animals, birds and so on.
You can stop the spread of the disease by growing varieties of potatoes that are resistant to cancer. Moreover, it cannot be planted next year where the epidemic was. It is better if within five years other crops grow on this place, for example, beets, beans or sunflower. Before they are planted in the soil, lime is added, but in reasonable quantities. Otherwise, when growing potatoes in the future, there will be a problem with scab. If the size of the garden allows, dangerous areas can be left under the pair.
Dry rot of tubers
This fungal disease does not manifest itself in a growing potato. Dry rot formed on tubers stored in the cellar. Usually this process begins two months after cleaning. Spores of the fungus remain in the ground for up to six years. Together with the earth they stick to the tubers of potatoes, and then they enter the cellar. The vital activity of pathogens continues on the walls of the store, if it is not disinfected before the harvest.Attention! Optimal conditions for the life of the fungus are created in hot weather. Dry summer can kill up to 40% of the crop.
Potato tubers become infected with dry rot only through mechanical damage to the skin. It does not matter whether it is on the field or in the cellar. Spores can carry rodent pests. First, gray spots appear on the skin of the potato, acquiring a brown tint over time. The flesh under the affected areas begins to rot and dry. The potato becomes shriveled, hard and very light. White outgrowths appear on rotten skin. Here they form new spores of the fungus, which after aging infect healthy potato tubers. The optimal conditions for the development of fungus in the cellar is a high concentration of humidity of about 90% and air temperature above 5 ° C.
In the fight against this ailment, all measures used to combat other diseases are justified. Still it is necessary to try to put as little as possible mechanical damage to tubers. An important event is the disinfection of the store where the potato tubers will overwinter. Before laying the harvest, the cellar is treated with a solution consisting of 10 liters of water, 100 g of copper sulphate and 2 kg of lime. Secondary disinfection is carried out fungicidal checker. Of the popular methods, dry wormwood burning in the cellar gives good results. During the laying of potatoes, dry rowan leaves, elderberries or onion peel are scattered between the tubers in the cage.
Most of the common diseases of potatoes can be avoided if we treat the plantations with pest preparations in a timely manner, observe crop rotation and preventive measures. When breeding new varieties of potatoes, planting material should be bought only in proven firms.
This video will help the grower to learn how to handle potato tubers before planting: